When Taking a Look at the Expectancy Violations Theory

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By mrgemini80
Words 538
Pages 3
When taking a look at the Expectancy Violations Theory, it is defined as an individual’s reaction to the behavior of their peers that was viewed as unexpected, and can be used to violate the expectations of another. People all have spatial differences, which are called proxemics. I believe that proxemics helps us understand that there is a difference of appropriate and inappropriate touching. Space is the core connection of the Expectancy Violation Theory. Space has relevance to Expectation Violation Theory not only because the theory is rooted in proxemics, but also because it has direct application to the distances previously discussed (West & Turner, 2010). Let’s explore how individual “personal space” within conversations varies with cultures, friends, and strangers as it is predicted and or explained by the expectancy violations theory. The texts states according to Burgoon, can be defined as an invisible, variable volume of space surrounding an individual which defines that individual’s preferred distance from others”.(p130) With that said anthropologist Edward Hall proposed that an individual’s surrounding space is divided into four different ranges of special distances called Proxemics Zones. These zones are as follows: Intimate distance, Personal distance, Social distance, and Public distance. Approriate behavior is associated within each of the proxemics zones. Let’s focus and elaborate on one specific proxemics, the intimate distance. Why? My opinion is that this proxemics set the ultimate level of comfort allowed by individual. The intimate distance ranges from zero to eighteen inches. Behavior associated with this zone are being able to touch a person or being close enough to hear a whisper. Edward Hall noted that he finds is interesting that when U.S Citizen find themselves in intimate settings but are not with their intimate partner,…...

Similar Documents

Expectancy Theory

...Expectancy Theory of Motivation Lina Khachekian In order for businesses to motivate, they need to make sure that they practice motivation on a regular basis. If they practice what they preach, they will receive and see the full output that their employees give them. Victor Vroom proposed The expectancy theory of motivation in 1964, and this theory is one that is supposed to help guide businesses on what to do in order to achieve the motivation levels and continue to retain all of your employees rather than have a lot of turnover. The Expectancy theory of motivation is one that explains why employees are motivated and why they choose one source of action over another one. They choose these actions based on their goals of achieving the individual reward. The theory revolves around three components. The first component of the theory is the Expectancy: Effort-performance relationship. The provability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance (Robbins & Judge, 2007, p. 208). The second component would be the Instrumentality which is that Performance results in Outcome. The performance you make is the reward you will receive. The degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desire outcome (Robbins & Judge, 2007, p. 208). The third component of this theory is Valence which equals Rewards. In this component each individual puts a value on the reward that......

Words: 844 - Pages: 4

Expectancy Theory

...Expectancy Theory Overview Expectancy Theory is a sociological explanation of human motivation. The theory specifies a three factor formula used to quantify motivation. When these factors are multiplied together, they yield an indication of how strongly motivated someone is relative to a certain task or activity. The three factors are based on perceived probabilities and individual values. The product of these factors is the motivational force. The strength of the motivational force signal can be correlated to an individual’s behavior in certain organizational situations and environments (QuickMBA, 2010). Expectancy Theory: Factors The three factors of Expectancy Theory are: Expectancy probability, Instrumentality probability and Valence. Expectancy probability relates to an individual’s analysis of how much effort they need to exert to produce a desired level of performance. The results of this analysis may depend on and individuals personality and their familiarity with the associated tasks. Instrumentality probability relates performance to rewards. It is an individual’s assessment of how likely they are to receive a reward, such as a raise or promotion, given a certain level of personal job performance. Valence concerns an individual’s value judgment. It is an individual’s personal assessment of the relative importance of things in their life (QuickMBA, 2010). Expectancy Theory: Case Study In this case study, a company is attempting to implement a new......

Words: 659 - Pages: 3

Vroom's Expectancy Theory of Motivation

...Vroom’s Expectancy Theory of Motivation Motivation is defined as “psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior” (Kinicki and Kreitner, 2006). As a more business-related definition, motivation can be defined as “forces within an individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work” (Young, 2000). Motivating employees can be extremely challenging and complex for an organization’s leaders and managers. For an organization to be successful and survive in the rapidly changing market, it is essential for managers to understand what motivates individuals within the context of the specific tasks being performed. Hiring employees that are self-motivated, who already have set their goals and expectations, can make a manager’s job less difficult. However, managers must continually motivate their employees to sustain satisfaction throughout the whole organization. Like personalities, individuals have different sets of goals and expectations for their jobs. They also have different choices on how they want to be rewarded for a “job well done,” whether it is a monetary bonus, a promotion, or organizational recognition. Knowing an individual’s profile, a manager can construct a motivation method for that person. For example, if the manager is considering giving an employee a raise and their profile shows that organizational recognition motivates this person, the manager should reward accordingly,......

Words: 1086 - Pages: 5

Expectancy Theory of Motivation

...Expectancy Theory of Motivation In a business, what motivates employees to do their best? One theory that may explain the reasons why some employees seem more motivated than others is the Expectancy theory of motivation. The Expectancy theory operates under the assumption that employees will perform well based on self-belief and how much they desire the rewards their actions will render. Three key components and relationships in this theory determine how motivated an employee will choose to be: expectancy, instrumentality and valence. Expectancy, as it relates to organizational behavior, is an employee’s belief that they can put high levels of effort into a task and accomplish it successfully. An employee’s belief that they can complete the task successfully all depends on their level of efficacy, which is a direct by-product of past experiences, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion and emotional cues. When considered in whole, all these factors determine how confident an employee will feel about performing any given task. Once the employee has decided they are capable of performing all tasks, issues of instrumentality will become a factor in their motivation process. Instrumentality is the belief that desired outcomes will come from the successful performance of tasks. Employees feel they will be rewarded or attain a desired outcome when they successfully complete tasks assigned to them. Some examples of rewards can be given in the form of promotions, incentives or...

Words: 686 - Pages: 3

Path-Goal/Expectancy Theory

... Goal: Developing a thorough understanding of theories by applying a motivation theory and a leadership theory to a popular movie. Movie choice (Indicate option on pull-down menu): Path Goal Theory: Identify the four behaviors used by leaders (according to this theory) and the situations under which each behavior should be used: Behavior 1: Directive Leaders - directive leadership is defined in its name. The leader's followers require direction and expect to hear from the leader regarding how they carry out their duties. For this type of leadership to be effective, typically the followers are working within an environment that is ad-hoc and unstructured. An example of a directive leader would be a yoga teacher. As the leader, he/she is in charge of directing the students on what to do next (especially in a first-time class). Behavior 2: Supportive Leaders - supportive leadership takes place when the leader creates an environment that is friendly and free from encumbrances that the other leaderships defined within this section hinder. It's proven that this leadership style is most effective within that are mentally challenging. An example of a supportive leader would be a Major League Baseball pitching coach. As the leader, he/she is in charge of calming the pitchers nerves and mind when on the mound. Behavior 3: Participative Leaders - participative leadership takes place when the leader creates an communicative atmosphere that......

Words: 4173 - Pages: 17

Expectancy Theory

...The expectancy theory of motivation, which was first produced by Victor Vroom, has become a generally accepted theory for explaining how individuals make decisions concerning different behavioural alternatives. According to Vroom to motivate someone mere offer a person something to satisfy his important needs will not be adequate. In order for the person to be motivated, he must also be convincingly sure that he has the ability to obtain the reward. An employee’s motivation increases when he values a particular outcome greatly and when he feels a reasonably good chance of achieving the desired goal. This definition states that: Any individual acts in a way to reach a maximal effect with a minimal effort. The first major expectancy theory was put forward by Victor Harold Vroom. The expectancy theory works on the basis that to achieve high motivation, hard productive work must gain a valued goal or reward for example in a workplace if you want more money, and more money will come if you work hard then we can predict that you will work hard. IF you still want more money, and all you think working hard will get you is smiles from the boss, an predict that you will chose not to work hard, unless you put a high value on smiles from the boss’(D. Buchanan & A.Huczynski., 2004). Victor Harold Vroom formed the expectancy theory using three concepts: Expectancy, Instrumentality and valence. The equation that he made is: F (force motivation) =å(V (Valence) x I......

Words: 653 - Pages: 3

Expectancy Theory

...work for nearly 150,000 employees; they focus on making their work environment vibrant and desirable. Darden values integrity, fairness, respect, diversity and teamwork. Recently in the news, all members of the board of directors of Darden were fired. They violated Darden’s values. The previous board of directors decided to sell Red Lobster and activist investors and shareholders were not pleased with the decision. So in a form of revolt the shareholders decided to fire the entire twelve members of Darden’s board and elect a new board based on activist’s investor’s insight. Statement of Problem In the case of Darden, activist’s investors conglomerated with shareholders to create a proposal of how Darden could increase its revenue. When hedge funds purchase a substantial stake in a company they typically try to restructure the company because they see value. Darden has hidden value in its real estate. A research report issued by Starboard valued Darden’s real estate at over $4 million. Starboard is an activist investor, owning nearly 9% of Darden, which proposed spinning off Darden into three parent companies, one for the mature companies, one for the newer faster growing brands and finally a real estate investment trust (REIT). Activists wanted to monetize these real estate ventures. A continual goal of Darden has been to increase customer and shareholder value, something that attracts investors. But the board of directors at Darden decided to sell Red Lobster for 2.1......

Words: 1546 - Pages: 7

Expectancy Theory

...Expectancy Theory Student name: Ho Yin Cheung Student No: N8703019 MGB200 Christine Crawford – Tutorial 9 6:00-7:00 Tuesday Words: 1932 Introduction Employers always want their employees work with the highest performance. In the real business world, Leaders have trying many methods to motivate colleagues do the job well. However, they may fail to motivate their colleagues by many reasons. The expectancy theory can predict the result of the motivation. In this essay, firstly, three components of the expectancy theory of motivation, such as E-to-P expectancy, P-to-O expectancy, and outcome valences will be illustrated. Secondly, there are several limitations of this theory will be outlined. Thirdly, it will then show the real experience. Finally, the recommendations which apply to the case will be pointed out. Literature review Motivation is somebody acts in a certain way caused by someone else. It means someone use motivation as a motive for doing things (Adrian, 2007). Expectancy theory of motivation explains how the internal origins of employee motivation, such as, drives (primary needs) and need translate into specific effort and behaviour (Vroom, 1964). In other words, it focuses on what reason makes individuals choose one behavioural option over others (Vroom, 1964). There are three components frame this theory: effort-to-performance expectancy (E-to-P), performance-to-outcome expectancy (P-to-O) and outcome valences (Porter & Lawler, 1968). This theory is...

Words: 2367 - Pages: 10

Expectancy Theory

...Expectancy Theory-Vroom and Turnover In Vroom’s expectancy theory (1964) “He believes that employee is motivated to exert high level of efforts when he believes that efforts will lead to good performance and therefore organizational rewards that will satisfy achievement of personal goals”(Kondalkar, 2007). Therefore if the employees think of the rewards that are offered are insufficient, there could be a possibility that they will not give their best performances and as a result their motivation decreases, thus it will lead to a turnover in the long term (Lunenburg, 2011). The problem of high turnover can also be associated with this fact that workers at McDonald knows that their efforts will not be rewarded and rewards that are already offered are insufficient thus does not identify individual goal pattern and thus their performance criteria and reward system does not reflects employees individual needs and personal goals. In his Expectancy theory Vroom has identified that individual have certain expectations from their company, and these expectations have an influence on these individuals work behaviour Unfortunately at McDonald employees are not motivated as their expectation that are explained in Vroom’s theory is not fulfilled, most of the workers are underpaid, moreover they have unequal pay rate that is causing dissatisfaction among employees, and they are not recognized and appreciated for their work and efforts in terms of intrinsic or extrinsic reward. Job......

Words: 484 - Pages: 2

Expectancy Theory

...I. Three Concepts For equity theory, people compare their pay, reward with others and see if they are fair or not. If a worker feels that the other people treat he/she equally with others, the worker might satisfy and does not change behavior, otherwise he/she will look for changing. The important thing is inequity, and it can be positive or negative. If positive, it might increase their motivation to work. if negative, they might not want to work hard. Then, the expectancy theory focuses on what people expectation influence their motivation. if a person have a high expectancy for they work, he/she would spend more time on the work which mean increasing their motivation. if they think the work do not have good offer, they will decrease their workload (motivation). Goal-Setting theory seems like making a plan. People set their goal and it will motivate them to achieve the goal. if a worker have a goal that to get promotion, he/she might work hard and let other people seeing them to get promotion. it mean that they have high motivation. if they do not have goal, they just want to remain the same and low motivation. II. Expectancy Theory It can be separate in three elements including expectancy, instrumentality, and valence. Expectancy People think that they will get certain value of outcome by giving certain amount of effort. For example, a student believes that if he spends more time on his writing, he will write a great essay. Instrumentality People think that they...

Words: 431 - Pages: 2

Expectancy Theory

...The identification and application of the theoretical model ‘Expectancy Theory’ can be used to predict and diagnose the motivation of Middle Mangers, more specifically, Andrew, in working for the organisation; and the ramifications of these motivational reactions. In essence, by understanding the strength of desire for a particular outcome and the probability of achieving this, helps individuals to gain a subjective view of effort linked to outcome, to adjust motivation and behaviour towards work-related goals. Expectancy theory identifies three elements, allowing an employee to understand the links between effort, performance and outcomes. The first stage, effort to performance, was demonstrated to be highly successful for Andrew. A person with high effort-performance expectancy will be more motivated to perform. (Wilson, 2010, p.133) An increased amount of effort is linked to higher levels of performance, where an individual will choose the level of effort based upon their estimates of the desired outcome linked to that effort. The opportunity for achievement and the responsibility and scope for individual advancement set out by David, as well as the desirability to gain a high income for his ‘life plans’ were the major factors that motivated Andrew to pursue the level of effort he displayed. Andrew was lead to believe by David that ‘if he performed well in his six months as assistant manager, he would step directly into the Graduate Management Program.’ As well as......

Words: 2450 - Pages: 10

Expectancy Theory

...Theories of Motivation: Vroom’s Valence-Expectancy Theory If you were a manager, wouldn’t you like to know how your employees decide to work hard or goof off? Wouldn’t it be nice to know whether a planned rewards program will have the desired effect—namely, motivating them to perform better in their jobs? Wouldn’t it be helpful if you could measure the effect of bonuses on employee productivity? These are the issues considered by psychologist Victor Vroom in his expectancy theory, which proposes that employees will work hard to earn rewards that they value and that they consider obtainable. There are three variables of Vroom’s model given in the form of an equation. Since the mode is multiplicative, all the three variables must have high positive values to imply motivated performance choices. If any of the variables approaches zero, the probability of motivated performance approaches zero. Motivation = Valence*Expectancy*instrumentality Valence is the strength of an individual’s preference for a reward, The value attached to a goal or reward is subjective as it varies from person to person Thus, the total range of valence is from –1 to +1. Expectancy is the probability that particular action will lead to a desired reward Since, it is an association between effort and performance, its value may range from 0 to 1. if the individual feels that chances of achieving an outcome are zero, he will not even try. On the other hand, if expectancy is higher, the individual...

Words: 1187 - Pages: 5

Equity vs Expectancy Theory

...Motivation Theory and Practice Analyze, compare, and contrast the two contemporary theories of motivation (a) equity theory and, (b) expectancy theory. Include in your discussion, an evaluation of each theory and the implications to managers in a global work environment. Your analysis should include identification of the strengths and weaknesses of each theory using scholarly references to defend your arguments. by Tassos Pericleous Student’s Number: 20153386 American College Semester 1 November 2015 Abstract The purpose of this paper was to analyze, compare, and contrast the two contemporary theories of motivation equity theory and, expectancy theory. Evaluate each theory and the implications of the theories to managers in a global work environment. Analysis should include identification of the strengths and weaknesses of each theory using scholarly references to defend your arguments. Motivation is the answer to the question “Why we do what we do?”. The motivation theories try to figure out what the “M” is in the equation: “M motivates P” (Motivator motivates the Person). It is one of most important duty of an entrepreneur to motivate people. Motivation theories can be classified broadly into two different perspectives: Content and Process theories. This paper explores the two contemporary theories of motivation process theories, equity (Adam’s) theory and expectancy (Vroom’s) theory. Analysis of equity theory (a) Equity Theory Equity Theory......

Words: 1700 - Pages: 7

Path Goal and Expectancy Theory

...Path-goal theory centers on how leaders motivate subordinates to accomplish selected goals. It emphasizes the relationship between the leaders’ style, the characteristics of the subordinates and the work setting. The leader should clarify the directions so subordinates know which way to go, remove obstacles that are stopping them and provide the rewards along the way. Leaders’ approach will depend on the situation, including the follower's capability and motivation, as well as the difficulty of the job and other contextual factors. The underlying mechanism of the path-goal theory deals with expectancy, a cognitive approach to understanding motivation where people calculate: – Effort-to-perform – Perform for Outcome – Assigned valences or values to outcome Based on assumptions from Vroom's Expectancy Theory, this model explains how behavior of the leader causes expectancies/motivations in the subordinate that create effort and satisfaction. The rationale is that followers will perform better if they think they are capable, and if they perceive the work will get results and be worth the effort. But can anyone become a leader and if so, how? The secret to leadership is the ability, to create a highly motivating work environment that influences anyone who comes into contact with it. The strength of the P-O linkage depends upon three beliefs in the follower's mind. First, the follower must trust that the leader will be able to deliver as promised. The outcome, given that......

Words: 437 - Pages: 2

Expectancy Theory

...order to address worker apathy, management needs to understand how to motivate their employees. Expectancy Theory of Motivation The Expectancy Theory of Motivation is a theory first proposed by Victor Vroom of the Yale School of Management in 1964. It states that an employee’s motivation is a result of how much a person wants to be rewarded (valence), the probability that the effort results in the expected performance (expectancy) and the belief that their performance will result in the desired reward (instrumentality). Three components of Expectancy theory: Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence 1. Expectancy: Effort → Performance (E→P) 2. Instrumentality: Performance → Outcome (P→O) 3. Valence- V(R) Expectancy: Is the strength of a person’s belief about whether or not a particular job performance is attainable. An employee will be motivated to try a task if he or she believes that it can be done (lacpa.org). The rewards can be either extrinsic (money, promotion, free time, benefits) or intrinsic (satisfaction). Instrumentality: The perception of employees whether they will actually receive the reward for their work. Management must ensure that promises of rewards are fulfilled and that employees are aware of that (lacpa.org). Commission pay schemes are an example of instrumentality. Valence: Is the emotional orientations which people hold with respect to rewards. Vroom’s theory suggests that the individual will consider the outcomes associated with various levels......

Words: 784 - Pages: 4

All Accessories | 368 افلام عربية WEBDL مشاهدة فيلم غريب في بيتي 1982 اون لاين بدون حذف مشاهدة فيلم غريب في بيتي 1982 اون لاين بدون حذف مشاهدة تحميل فيلم غريب في بيتي 1982 اون لاين بدون... 7.3 | Interpersonal Communication - 8288 Words