Submitted By ludan2010

Words 1561

Pages 7

Words 1561

Pages 7

Managing portfolio and investing in stocks is very risky and could be tricky, as a result, financial experts and investors view it as necessary or smart to know what to expect when they invest. Due to this, different statistical models have emerged to attempt to scientifically measure the potential returns on an investment. The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and the Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) are two of such models. The purpose of this essay is to critically compare the Arbitrage Pricing Theory with the Capital Asset Pricing Model as used by fund managers in the United Kingdom.

Captial Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

When Sharpe (1964) and Lintner (1965) proposed the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), it was seen as a leading tool in measuring if an investment will yield in positive or negative returns. It attempts to explain the relationship between investment risk and expected reward of risky securities (Ushad, 2011; Reilly and Brown, 2011; Heshmat, 2012). The CAPM helps to determine the required rate of return for any risky asset (Reilly and Brown, 2011).

“The CAPM states that the expected return on a security or a portfolio equals the rate on a risk-free security plus a risk premium” (Heshmat, 2012: 504). It indicates that the expected return on an asset has a positive linear relationship with the non-diversifiable risk of the security (beta) (Heshmat, 2012). Ushad (2011) explains that the CAPM is based on the premise that higher returns should be associated with higher beta risks. It is usually calculated as follows: E(Ri)= Rf + βi (E(Rm) - Rf). (Ushad, 2011).

Where, E(Ri) = return required on financial asset i

Rf = risk-free rate of return βi = the sensitivity of the asset’s return to the market

E(Rm) = average return on the capital market

Sharpe (1964) and Lintner (1965) proposed various assumptions that the CAPM must take…...

...opposing the fully rational approach is magic thinking in which individuals use irrelevant cues just as astrology or some other superstitions. A.2 Narrow framing/Mental accounting/Reference effects Narrow framing is the case where the problem is examined by certain features instead of analyzing the whole problem. When reference points are given, subjects tend to make decisions analyzing only those points. Another frame effect in psychological approach is the choices which are not chosen. Giving up an option mostly affects individuals’ preferences. An irrational (not fully rational) investor may make up their mind according to non-selected choices. In stock markets it is very common to witness investors who keep the value-losing assets and sell gaining ones. This behavior can be explained by mental accounting in which individuals keep tracks/records of their selections and reanalyze them time to time. Keeping such a record may make the investor to avoid recognizing the loss. Mental accounting also explains the house money effect where investors will to gamble with recently earned money. When they lose, they calculate the earned money and the loss to avoid greater unpleasantness. Anchoring is another psychological deriver in the field of mental accounting. It is the phenomena where investors stick into some quantities even if they are uninformative or irrelevant. Regret avoiding may trigger self deception mechanism. Maybe a good heuristic method can be......

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...ASET PRICING AND FINANCIAL STATEMENT INFORMATION PENDAHULUAN Tujuan investor dalam berinvestasi adalah memaksimalkan return. Return merupakan salah satu faktor yang memotivasi investor berinvestasi dan juga merupakan imbalan atas keberanian investor menanggung resiko atas investasi yang dilakukannya. Investor atau orang-orang yang ingin berinvestasi di bursa saham harus memperhitungkan secara hati-hati keuntungan maksimal yang mungkin akan diterima. Agar dapat memperoleh keuntungan, para investor harus mengestimasi semua faktor penting seperti return saham, resiko dan ketidakpastian saham, jumlah waktu dan faktor lain yang berhubungan dengan aktivitas investasi di pasar modal yang mempengaruhi pengembalian investasi di masa mendatang. Di samping memperhitungkan return, investor juga perlu mempertimbangkan tingkat resiko suatu investasi sebagai dasar pembuatan keputusan investasi. Berbagai faktor penting ini membutuhkan banyak informasi yang digunakan untuk estimasi, ketentuan, dan menawarkan harga yang cocok dalam perdagangan saham. Untuk melakukan penilaian terhadap harga saham di bursa saham, penggunaan model sangat penting untuk menilai harga saham dan membantu para investor untuk merencanakan dan memutuskan investasi dengan benar dan efektif. Model penilaian harga aset adalah cara pemetaan harga aset keuangan seperti saham dan obligasi. Di dalam model penilaian aset, harga selalu dilihat sebagai variabel endogen bukan sebaliknya. Burton (1998)......

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...Question: Discuss how an increase in the value of each of the determinants of the option price in the Black-Scholes option pricing model for European options is likely to change the price of a call option. A derivative is a financial instrument that has a value determined by the price of something else, such as options. The crucial idea behind the derivation was to hedge perfectly the option by buying and selling the underlying asset in just the right way and consequently "eliminate risk" (Ray, 2012). The derivative asset we will be most interested in is a European call option. A call option gives the holder of the option the right to buy the underlying asset by a certain date for a certain price, but a put option gives the holder the right to sell the underlying asset by a certain date for a certain price. The date in the contract is known as the expiration date or maturity date; the price in the contract is known as the exercise price or strike price. The market price of the underlying asset on the valuation date is spot price or stock price. Intrinsic value is the difference between the current stock market price and the exercise price or simply higher of zero. American options can be exercised at any time up to the expiration date. European options can be exercised only on the expiration date itself. (Hull, 2012). For example, consider a July European call option contract on XYZ with strike price $70. When the contract expires in July, if the price of XYZ......

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...MSC Finance Std: xxxxxxxxx Introduction Asset pricing models are very useful tools in calculating the risk and their respected return for the investors and they are being widely used by financial analyst. From different theories we can determine the value of assets into three steps i.e., Expected Cash Flow, number of periods and the expected rate of returns. Investors have several questions before investing his money in any stock or in any other commodity that is what should be the accuracy of prices of selling or buying the stocks, what could be the risk, what are the factors should be considered that ignores uncertainty and the expected returns of the stock. The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) and Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT) both are well known pricing model determines the risk factor for analyzing the appropriate returns for the investors in their own unique ways. CAPM model uses the whole market environment as one factor but on the other hand APT uses five different economics factor which is more detailed in describing risk which accelerates for these factors. The adoption of CAPM is in practice but other hand its various criticisms are documented on it as well and academics are working on the new approaches of it such as APT and others is discussed in later paragraphs. In this assignment I will discuss the assumptions of CAPM and APT model and their pros and cons and the limitations of CAPM over APT models. CAPM and its Shortcomings Hary......

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...Question: Discuss how an increase in the value of each of the determinants of the option price in the Black-Scholes option pricing model for European options is likely to change the price of a call option. A derivative is a financial instrument that has a value determined by the price of something else, such as options. The crucial idea behind the derivation was to hedge perfectly the option by buying and selling the underlying asset in just the right way and consequently "eliminate risk" (Ray, 2012). The derivative asset we will be most interested in is a European call option. A call option gives the holder of the option the right to buy the underlying asset by a certain date for a certain price, but a put option gives the holder the right to sell the underlying asset by a certain date for a certain price. The date in the contract is known as the expiration date or maturity date; the price in the contract is known as the exercise price or strike price. The market price of the underlying asset on the valuation date is spot price or stock price. Intrinsic value is the difference between the current stock market price and the exercise price or simply higher of zero. American options can be exercised at any time up to the expiration date. European options can be exercised only on the expiration date itself. (Hull, 2012). For example, consider a July European call option contract on XYZ with strike price $70. When the contract expires in July, if the price of XYZ......

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...Portfolio DPortfolioMAC= DBond1MAC*P0Bond1P0Portfolio+DBond2MAC*P0Bond2P0Portfolio * The higher Duration the more sensitive is the Bond to changes of interest rate Markowitz Portfolio theory: Expected Return: μ=1ni=1nri Variance: σ2=1(n-1)i=1n(ri-μ)2 Standard Error: Err=σn Covariance: σAB=1(n-1)i=1n(riA-μA)(riB-μB) Correlation coefficient: ρAB=σABσAσB Markowitz Portfolio Theory: σ2=a2σA2+b2σB2+2abσAB μ=arA+(1-a)rB Portfolio of identical Stocks: σPortfolio=1nσOne stock2+1-1nσBetween two stocks Sharpe ratio (Slope of the Capital Market Line): Sharpe Ratio= (μ-rf)σ CAPM: r=rf+βrm+rf β=σStock,MarketσMarket2 βMarket Portfolio=1 βRisk Free Asset=0 β for estimation of cost of equity: additional risk of borrowing and different interest rates for borrowing and lending are not accounted for. Stocks under SML are overvalued, Stocks above SML are undervalued. On average the stocks are on the SML. Risk decomposition: σ2=βx2σMarket2+σε2 Weighted Average Capital Cost: WACC=DebtDebt+EquityrDebt+EquityDebt+EquityrEquity With Taxes: WACC=(1-TC)DebtDebt+EquityrDebt+EquityDebt+EquityrEquity Asset β: βAsset=DebtDebt+EquityβDebt+EquityDebt+EquityβEquity Cost of Equity is measured by CAPM, but it’s difficult to calculate for not listed firms, as an alternative to asset beta: Accounting beta relying on changes in book value: βAccounting=Cov(∆Earnings of the firm,∆Earnings of the market)Var(∆Earnings of the market) Cash Flow beta relying......

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...Banking & Finance 35 (2011) 2217–2230 Journal of Banking & Finance journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf Liquidity and asset pricing: Evidence from the Hong Kong stock market Keith S.K. Lam ⇑, Lewis H.K. Tam Department of Finance and Business Economics, Faculty of Business Administration, University of Macau, Av. Padre Tomas Pereira, S.J. Taipa, Macao, China a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t This study investigates the role of liquidity in pricing stock returns in the Hong Kong stock market. Our results show that liquidity is an important factor for pricing returns in Hong Kong after taking well-documented asset pricing factors into consideration. The results are robust to adding portfolio residuals and higher moment factor in the factor models. The results are also robust to seasonality, and conditional-market tests. We also compare alternative factor models and ﬁnd that the liquidity four-factor model (market excess return, size, book-to-market ratio, and liquidity) is the best model to explain stock returns in the Hong Kong stock market, while the momentum factor is not found to be priced. Ó 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Article history: Received 10 June 2010 Accepted 17 January 2011 Available online 22 January 2011 JEL classiﬁcation: G12 G15 Keywords: Liquidity Asset pricing Hong Kong stock market Factor model Fama French three factors Higher moment Momentum 1. Introduction Investors face liquidity risk when they transfer......

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...Michelle Hinton Theories of Employee Empowerment/Penetrating Pricing 12/6/13 Abstract This paper will discuss human resources and the marketing area of the firm, with concentration on employee empowerment and penetrating pricing. It will also explain what issue raised the topic of employee empowerment, what action was taken by the company, and what the results were. First I would like to define empowerment in the business world. It means having the knowledge and ability to humanize the environment in which employees and management work together to increase the productivity of the company, and accomplishing more valuable relationships between employees and management (EMPOWERMENT, 2013). The two theories that are being evaluated are employee empowerment within the human resource field of the firm and penetrating pricing in the marketing area of the firm. The Firm I have chosen is the Ford Motor Company. Employee Empowerment The Ford Motor Company is using empowerment in a manner that allows the employee to think outside the box, letting the employee’s ideas be implemented in a manner that increases sales. This in turn improves the quality of Ford in the market place and enriches their employees by giving them the opportunities to contribute their ideas and more responsibilities, so they can perform in their position with a higher quality of work, in essence empowering them to make a difference. Ford Motor Company has had positive results with this strategy,......

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...the capital asset pricing model… Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model Hello this is an essay about the capital asset pricing model......

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...Tranfer Pricing and Agency Theory Performance management: It is composed by objectives, that are achieved through programs, that are supported by technologies. There are different to objectives to achieve in single departments and areas: 1. Cost reduction 2. Quality improvement 3. Capacity improvement Since there are a lot of objectives, we say that performance management is discursive. To manage the achievement of meeting these obj there are different programs: 1. Lean production (for cost reduction) 2. Total Quality Management, Manufacturing Excellence (for quality improvement) 3. Demand Chain Planning (capacity improvement) Since all the objectives can be reached with different programs, we say that performance management is programmatic. Management technologies = managing accounting techniques. There are different costing systems/technologies implemented to support the programs: 1. Target costing, Activity Based Costing, Kaizen Costing 2. 6sigma 3. S&OP Process We thus say that performance management is also technological. Accounting numbers foster control at a distance. Everything becomes a number in the accounting report: we reduce the complexity of a real world in a 3D form into some 2D accounting reports. These 2D reports lead to “amplification”, caused by the fact that: * reports are mobile/transportable * reports are combinable between each other in order to provide a more complete picture of the reality * numbers make everything......

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...Capital Asset Pricing Model Case Study Beta Management Company (HBS Case 9-292-122) We are asked to read the Harvard Case and answer the following questions. The answers need to be clear so I can research your work myself to gain a better understanding. Therefore, please make sure I can follow your reasoning – ie: please provide an explanation behind each of your approaches to answer each question. I intend to use your feedback as the basis to gain a better understanding of this course, which I have had difficulty in the area of CAPM. Having your detailed solution with explanations in front of me, will allow me to better research this topic and provide me with the framework to understand this particular problem better. Therefore, the more information you can provide, the better. I am not sure what an average cost is for a tutor to handle a problem such as this, but I have attempted to provide a good incentive to attract a tutor that will understand that I am genuinely seeking to gain a much greater grasp on CAPM and as such, am looking for a tutor to provide an in-depth and accurate response. Thanking you in advance. QUESTIONS: 1. Compute the standard deviation of the stock returns of California REIT and Brown Group during the past 2 years. 2. Suppose that Beta’s position had been 99% of equity funds invested in the index fund, and 1% in the individual stock. Calculated the standard deviation of this portfolio using each stock. How does each stock......

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...EFFICIENT MARKETS HYPOTHESIS AND OTHER THEORIES OF PRICING IN FINANCIAL MARKETS Name Course Title/Code Instructor’s Name Date Efficient Markets Hypothesis and other theories of pricing in financial markets Efficient market hypothesis (EMH) is a theory that emerged in the 1960s. It states that it is difficult to predict the market since the price has been set and reflect the current market conditions. It is a disputed and controversial theory. The theory is comparable to other theories of pricing in financial markets. Several strengths and shortcomings emerge through comparison with other theories of pricing (Blinder, et al., 2012). EMH states that no stock is a better buy when compared to others. It is the conclusion that leads to random choices. It is a vital tenet of finance theory. The EMH theory has a basis in other finance theories. It follows the classical theory of asset prices. To determine the connection, a situation where stocks are considered based on good deals. According to the EMH theory, these stocks are worth more than their relative prices. The worth of a stock is the present value of the expected dividends. In this regard, an individual will buy stocks at prices that are below this level. In essence, this is buying stocks that are undervalued assets (Kapil, 2011). Classical theory The classical theory follows the belief that the price of a stock is equal to the best estimate of the stock’s value. This equality means that the undervalued stocks are not......

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...Capital Asset Pricing Model Introduction One factor model that extends the capital asset pricing model (CAPM), adding size and value factors in addition to market risk factor in CAPM. This model considers the fact that the cost and small-capitalization stocks outperform the market on a regular basis. Including these two additional factors that corrects the model for the outperformance trend, which is thought to make it a better tool for evaluating the effectiveness of a manager. FAMA and French tried to better assess the market returns, and based on research, it was found that the value of the shares outperform growth stocks; In addition, small cap stocks tend to outperform large cap stocks. As an instrument of evaluation, the effectiveness of the portfolio with a large number of small cap or value stocks will be lower than the CAPM results, the three factor model adjusts down to small cap and value outperformance. There is much debate about how, outperformance is due to the tendency of market efficiency or inefficiency of the market. On the efficiency side of the debate, outperformance, how to explain that the risk of exceeding cost and small-capitalization stocks face as a result of their high cost of capital and increased business risk. On the ineffectiveness of the parties, outperformance is explained by market participants mispricing the value of those companies, which provides the excess return over the long term as the value is adjusted. The model for asset......

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...Empirically Consistent Model for Stock Price and Option Pricing HUADONG(HENRY) PANG∗ Quantitative Research, J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. 277 Park Ave., New York, NY, 10017 Third draft, May 16, 2009 Abstract In this paper, we propose a novel simple but empirically very consistent stochastic model for stock price dynamics and option pricing, which not only has the same analyticity as log-normal and Black-Scholes model, but can also capture and explain all the main puzzles and phenomenons arising from empirical stock and option markets which log-normal and Black-Scholes model fail to explain. In addition, this model and its parameters have clear economic interpretations. Large sample empirical calibration and tests are performed and show strong empirical consistency with our model’s assumption and implication. Immediate applications on risk management, equity and option evaluation and trading, etc are also presented. Keywords: Nonlinear model, Random walk, Stock price, Option pricing, Default risk, Realized volatility, Local volatility, Volatility skew, EGARCH. This paper is self-funded and self-motivated. The author is currently working as a quantitative analyst at J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. All errors belong to the author. Email: henry.na.pang@jpmchase.com or hdpang@gmail.com. ∗ 1 Electronic copy available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1374688 2 Huadong(Henry) Pang/J.P. Morgan Chase & Co. 1. Introduction The well-known log-normal model for stock price was......

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...Cleveland Arbitrage: The Key to Pricing Options by Ed Nosal and Tan Wang A rbitrage is the act of simultaneously buying and selling assets or commodities in an attempt to exploit a profitable opportunity. Although the idea behind arbitrage is fairly simple, it is quite powerful because the ability to exploit such opportunities is needed for markets to operate efficiently. Arbitrage ensures, for example, that buyers and sellers of foreign exchange can be assured that they are getting the “correct” rates for the currencies they are buying and selling independent of the national foreign-exchange markets they happen to be using. When markets are efficient, the prices of the objects being traded reflect their true value. And having prices reflect true values is important in decentralized economies, such as the United States, since it is the relative prices of various goods, services, and assets that determines how many will be produced, how they will be allocated, and how funds will be invested. If prices did not reflect true value, then the resulting allocation of goods, services, and investment would not be, in general, economically efficient. This Commentary focuses on a particular episode in which the recognition of an arbitrage “opportunity” made financial markets more efficient. It wasn’t a chance to make a profit that got noticed, it was the way the principles of arbitrage could be applied to the problem of correctly pricing options. Once...

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