The June Forth Massacre

In: Social Issues

Submitted By misskcat
Words 1311
Pages 6
Topic 6: Social Movement
The China Pro-democracy movement In Hong Kong
Social movement is the most influential collective behavior that encourages or discourages a social change by a large organized group of individuals. Depending on the kind of change desired and the target, there are four types of social movement. Among the four types of social movement, revolutionary social movement is the most extreme one that targets everyone in the society and change the whole society radically. In the following, only the revolutionary social movement will be focused and the China Pro-democracy movement in Hong Kong will be used as an example of this type of social movement.

To begin with, here is the history of the movement. The China Pro-democracy movement is the largest- scale and longest-lasting demonstration in China. It started on 15th April, 1989 when the former general secretary of the Chinese committee secretariat Hu Yaobang suddenly died of a heart attack. The death of Hu not only brought the calling for vindication of Hu’s legacy but also the discussion of other political and social issues among the public especially the young intelligence group. Afterwards the university students used non-violent ways such as sit-in, the student’s strike and hunger strike to urge the government make changes in China .They listed some suggestions(“Seven demands“)including democratic reformation, a vindication of Hu and other five points for the government. However, the government did not take the suggestions into consideration and accused the students as extremely small segments of opportunists overthrowing the Communist Party and the political system. Finally the government declared the martial law and cleared the Tiananmen Square by killing protestors. The Tiananmen Square Protest was ended after the June Forth Massacre.

Hong Kong plays an important role on the movement as…...

Similar Documents

The Boston Massacre

...The Boston Massacre happened in March 5, 1770 during the evening. In the Boston Massacre, British soldiers killed five inhabitants and wounded six inhabitants. Captain Thomas Preston was responsible for the British soldiers which killed five inhabitants. Whether Captain Thomas Preston gave the order “fire” or not is a controversial issue. Although there are lots of witnesses who argued they were sure that he gave the order, there were also lots of witnesses who argued they were sure that he was not gave the “fire” order. Although the evidences not give us a certain idea that Captain Thomas Preston was guilty or not, because the evidences are controversial, evidences strongly suggest that he was not guilty, he presumably did not give the order “fire”. During the 1760s and the first days of the 1770s the tension in the Boston was high because of the Stamp Act and the other new taxes which were going to be applied, known as “Townshend Duties”. “… men such as Samuel Adams were encouraging their fellow Bostonians to be even bolder in their remonstrance.”(Wheeler, Becker & Glover, 84). Because of the inhabitant’s uneasy, the British government ordered some regiments of soldiers in Boston. However, bringing soldiers in the Boston did not bring the peace in the Boston; instead it increased the tension which was already ready to increase. The disputes between the soldiers and inhabitants started slowly, but by bid. There was a reaction to the soldiers as well as to the British......

Words: 1610 - Pages: 7

Massacre of Fort Pillow

...The Massacre at Fort Pillow: Holding Nathan Bedford Forrest Accountable Ned Bishop United States History II Professor Citro March 22, XXXX Title of paper. Writer’s name. Title of course, instructor’s name, and date. Source: Diana Hacker (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2004). 67 Bishop 2 Although Northern newspapers of the time no doubt exaggerated some of the Confederate atrocities at Fort Pillow, most modern sources agree that a massacre of Union troops took place there on April 12, 1864. It seems clear that Union soldiers, particularly black soldiers, were killed after they had stopped fighting or had surrendered or were being held prisoner. Less clear is the role played by Major General Nathan Bedford Forrest in leading his troops. Although we will never know whether Forrest directly ordered the massacre, evidence suggests that he was responsible for it. Fort Pillow, Tennessee, which sat on a bluff overlooking the Mississippi River, had been held by the Union for two years. It was garrisoned by 580 men, 292 of them from the Sixth United States Colored Heavy and Light Cavalry, 285 from the white Thirteenth Tennessee Cavalry. Nathan Bedford Forrest’s troops numbered about 1,500 men.1 The Confederates attacked Fort Pillow on April 12, 1864, and had virtually surrounded the fort by the time Forrest arrived on the battlefield. At 3:30 P.M., Forrest displayed a flag of truce and sent in a demand for unconditional surrender of the sort he had used...

Words: 1734 - Pages: 7

Maruti Massacre

...and the plant starts functioning. Workers had damaged everything — computers, server cables and entire data on July 18. At present, the company has no records of the workers and their duty-hours details for the entire month. The data will have to be retrieved and only after that the payment will be made." The Maruti shares fell 5 per cent after markets opened today. More than Rs. 3,192 crore was wiped off Maruti's market value on Thursday when its shares slid to their biggest one-day drop in two years. Shares of the parent Suzuki Motor Corp fell a total of 5.7 per cent in trading on Thursday and Friday to their lowest level in three-and-a-half years. Suzuki executives say they are keen to establish Gujarat as their exports hub by 2015. In June 2012, the Gujarat government had allocated around 700 acres for Maruti's proposed plant near Mehsana. Maruti had said it would invest Rs. 4,000 crore to set up the new manufacturing facility in Gujarat by 2015....

Words: 2423 - Pages: 10

Rosewood Massacre

...The Rosewood massacre was a violent, racially motivated conflict that took place during the first week of January 1923 in rural Levy County, Florida, United States. At least six blacks and two whites were killed, and the town of Rosewood was abandoned and destroyed in what contemporary news reports characterized as a race riot. Racial disturbances were common during the early 20th century in the United States, reflecting the nation's rapid social changes. Florida had an especially high number of lynchings in the years before the massacre, including a well-publicized incident in December 1922.[ Racial unrest and violence against African Americans permeated domestic developments in the United States during the post-World War I era. From individual lynchings to massive violence against entire black communities, whites in both the North and the South lashed out against black Americans with a rage that knew few bounds. From Chicago to Tulsa, to Omaha, East St. Louis, and many communities in between, and finally to Rosewood, white mobs pursued what can only be described as a reign of terror against African Americans during the period from 1917 to 1923. In Chicago, Illinois, for example, law and order was suspended for 13 days in July 1919 as white mobs made foray after foray into black neighborhoods, killings and wounding 365 black residents and leaving another 1,000 homeless. In June 1921, the black section of Tulsa, Oklahoma, was almost burned out and thousands were left......

Words: 315 - Pages: 2

Amritsar Massacre

...do sources tell us about the Amritsar Massacre and how does this compare to how the film portrays it? Amritsar Massacre or “Jallianwala Bagh massacre’’, as it took place in on the 13th of April 1919 in Jallianwala Bagh garden in Amritsar, a city located in the north of India. General Reginald Edward Dyer had announced before 13 April that ‘’ any processions or gatherings of four men will be looked upon and treated as an unlawful assembly and dispersed by force of arms if necessary’’ (Cavendish, R., 2009). In the enclosed compound were about 5000 to 20 000 Indians according to different sources(Bose, P., & Lyons, L.,1999) They were in fact protesting peacefully against the “Rowlatt act” concerning the right of appeal for the people involved in seditious activities. Dyer placed the military vehicles in front of the only door of the garden and ordered the shooting of all the unarmed civilians. The shooting lasted until the British armed men ran out of ammunition. In fact, the military used approximately 1650 rounds of ammunition, killing 379 civilians and wounding 1136 others (Bose, P., & Lyons, L., 1999). The Amritsar Massacre is considered as a major turning point that led the British government to consider the possible independence of the Indian State as the massacre became source of controversies between the British officials and the Indian nationalists. All sources state clearly that the British government condemned the massacre and qualified it as ‘’unbritish’’.......

Words: 704 - Pages: 3

Boston Massacre

...The Boston Massacre was an event, which led to the death of five colonists after British soldiers when ordered to fire upon them on March 5th, 1770. Much controversy surrounds the incident, as there seems to be a few different stories of what truly happened. Regardless, many people believe the Boston Massacre was the spark that ignited the Revolutionary War. My efforts will be focused on figuring our what really happened, and what events caused the British officers to shoot into the crowd of colonists. The incident took place on King Street (which is now called State Street today), on an early morning on the 5th of March in front of the British Sentry called Private Hugh White. Edward Gerrish, an apprentice of a wigmakers, began yelling at a British officer, lieutenant John Goldfinch for an unpaid bill. Gerrish left, but eventually came back hours later and began throwing rocks at the lieutenant. Soon, many colonists joined in and threw rocks themselves. At this point, Goldfinch had reached his boiling point, and challenged Gerrish before striking him with his musket. As the evening progressed, the crowd outside the sentry grew larger and larger and continued to harass the British officers. Meanwhile, Captain Thomas Preston overlooked the entire situation as it escalated. He immediately ordered 8 soldiers to help control the situation before it got out of hand. As the soldiers approached, with muskets loaded, the crowd of nearly 400 began to surround the outnumbered......

Words: 544 - Pages: 3

Tlatelolco Massacre

...History 151 28 March 2013 HIST 151: Final Essay Tlatelolco Massacre The Tlatelolco massacre was one of Mexico’s worst bloody events. It took place in the Plaza de las Tres Culturas (“Scare of the Three Cultures”) during the afternoon and night of October 2, 1968. Ten days before the Olympic Games, a group of 10,000 students decided to protest against the government’s oppression. Unfortunately the government sent the army to control the event and opened fire on the group of students and killed hundreds of them. All those innocent lives killed ten days before the opening ceremony of the 1968 Summer Olympic Games made a lot of noise in Mexico but also in the whole world. At that time, the Mexican propaganda controlled the media and let the citizens know that the group of students was hostile to the army, which explained the actions of the president and therefor the soldiers. The official paperwork was only available to the public in 2000. These documents got Gustavo Diaz Ordaz and Luis Echeverria, the Mexican president and his interior minister at that time in a lot of trouble, not only after the massacre but also after the publication of the government’s documents. The book I chose is Massacre in Mexico (“La Noche de Tlatelolco”) written by Elena Poniatowska. The book takes place in Mexico City during the year of 1968. During this period, Mexico has many political repressions. At this time it is also a year of searching and aspirations by students and the......

Words: 2204 - Pages: 9

Nanking Massacre

...It has been more than seventy years since the Nanking atrocity of 1937-38. This event is better known as the “Rape of Nanking” or “Nanking Massacre” (Wakabayashi). Even today, there is no healthy dialogue between the countries of China and Japan in regards to the atrocity that occurred there so long ago. The last time that there were any concessions made in regards to the atrocities in China were during and after World War II. Much of the historiography has been limited due the amount of silence that has been present throughout the world. Because of this, research about the atrocity had just recently begun to surface. Due to this fact, there are many factors that are brought into question when looking specifically at a historical event, especially one that is tied to such brutal emotion. The authors I have chosen each attempt to explain why there has been such a delay in Nanking’s historiography and at the same time attempt to explain what actually occurred there in 1937-38. I selected three books for this paper. The first is The Nanking Atrocity 1937-38 by Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi. The book was released on the 70th anniversary of the fall of the Chinese city of Nanking to the Japanese army. The perspective offered is by majority non-American with the exception being two contributors. Wakabayashi discusses what lies at the core of bitter disputes over history, wartime victimization, and postwar restitution that hinder healthy Sino-Japanese relations to this day. The Nanking...

Words: 2541 - Pages: 11

Massacre of Tlatelolco

...suppressing the people far too much and it was a matter of time before these tensions blew. The events that took place as a result, in the Plaza de las Tres Culturas was to protest government actions and “It was in this vacuum, that the students injected their demands, aspirations, and desires that were not exclusively of their interest, but also of interest of the campesinos, workers, intellectuals and political parties” (Carey p.29). In order to better understand what happened that day in the Plaza de las Tres Culturas I will be providing background as to what led to the protest, the ideologies, the strategies and forms of organization in the movement as well as a summary of what happened that day known as the Tlatelolco Massacre. The Tlatelolco Massacre took place on October 2, 1968 in the Plaza de las Tres Culturas in Mexico City. A student movement arose here as a reaction to violent repression and dissatisfaction with the regime of the PRI. A peaceful demonstration organized by the Consejo Nacional de Huelga (CNH) was orchestrated in which over 10,000 university and high school students gathered together with support from independent labor unions, farmers and locals alike. The idea behind the movement was to promote social, educational, political reforms and justice. With the 1968 summer Olympics approaching the CNH saw this as an opportunity to harness the attention and make their demonstrations gain publicity of the injustice of the Mexican government. Among some......

Words: 1194 - Pages: 5

Boston Massacre

... Boston Massacre | The Rebellion of the American People | By Sarah Burgess, James Kresa, Ryan Flynn, and Nick Zappier | | HIS 101 Prof Sundell HIS 101 Prof Sundell There are many things that are considered for leading to the American Revolution and one idea is that of oppression. Oppression is defined as “unjust or cruel exercise of authority or power” and “something that oppresses especially in being an unjust or excessive exercise of power.” (Merriam-Webster, 2014) Many colonists were dissatisfied with the Townsend Acts, which imposed import taxes, on things such as tea, glass, paper and other products from England. This was adding tension, along with the presence of British troops in the city of Boston. Rebellion was becoming evident among colonists, who felt that the British were making too strong of a presence and trying to have too much control over them. In reference to our first document, “A Monumental Inscription on the Fifth of March,” Isaiah Thomas details his disgust for the release of the murderous behavior of the British soldiers. He shares his feelings how justice may have not been served here by the court appointed judges, but it will be served in Hell. This article shows how many felt how the British were not held responsible for the slaughter deaths of the five colonists and the injuries of others. The colonists felt they had the right to protest the presence of the British troops and the unfair taxes. Thomas expresses the frustration of......

Words: 283 - Pages: 2

June Fourth

...June Fourth Movement: The party and state suppressed movements calling for government accountability, transparency, anti-corruption, freedom of the press and speech. Military crackdown that ended the large-scale, peaceful protests in Beijing and other cities that spring and early summer. Considered it as political disturbance It is impossible to understand today’s China and its relationship with the world without understanding the spring of 1989: the legacy of june fourth movement and how it affected today’s Chinese governance and foreign relations. Fear of another national movement, affecting social harmony and stability Today’s China: Politically more oppressive and closed atmosphere: “Neo-authoritarian” rule, relative social stability e.g. Effective state censorship has turned the vast majority of Chinese youth into "amnesiacs", while their parents and others of their generation keep silent about the recent past. Young generation are still ignorant about the event. According to Lim Louisa’s research and experiment, many young best-educated students could not recognize the iconic image of Tiananmen-Tank Man. A vast majority doubted the validity of the photo. e.g. high-school textbooks excluded this incident. Even some history textbooks-> claimed the imperialist Western world was trying to make socialist countries abandon the socialist route. e.g. detention of Tiananmen Mothers such as Ding Zilin and her husband , Zhang Xianling, cctv monitoring them. Each......

Words: 545 - Pages: 3

Gk June

...(MT) of foodgrain supplied under the PDS to the tribal-dominated Surgana region of Nashik. • India has joined the Multilateral Competent Authority Agreement (MCAA) on Automatic Exchange of Financial Account Information (AEOI). The new global standards has wide in scope and oblige the treaty partners to exchange wide range of financial information from institutions from their country. Apart from India 5 other nations including Australia, Canada, Costa Rica, Indonesia and New Zealand also have joined it. Now the total number of countries agreeing to exchange information automatically in accordance with MCAA has gone up to 60. • India and United States (US) have signed a new strategically important 10-year defence framework agreement on 3 June 2015. The agreement was signed between Union Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar and visiting US Defence Secretary Dr. Ashton Carter in New Delhi. • World Bank has approved 250 million US dollars loan for Jhelum and Tawi Flood Recovery Project in Jammu & Kashmir (J&K). The project will be funded by loan credit from International Development Association (IDA), a World Bank’s concessionary with a maturity of 25 years, including a 5 year grace period. • India has lost a poultry case against United States at World Trade Organization (WTO) after WTO’s Dispute Settlement Board (DSB) ruled that India’s ban on import of poultry meat, eggs and live pigs from US is inconsistent with the international norms. • Union Government has signed a loan......

Words: 6213 - Pages: 25

My Lai Massacre

...Tristen Epling Cristina Trapani-Scott ENG 101 24 November 2014 My Lai Massacre The My Lai Massacre happened on March 16, 1968 in the village of My Lai, South Vietnam. The Vietnam war was fought between North and South Vietnam and it was about stopping the spread of Communism, which was greatly feared around the world. Especially in America. Anti-Communist countries like France and America backed South Vietnam the best they could, while countries like China and Russia supported North Vietnam. America fought for eleven years even though the war lasted much longer. In January of 1968, a division of American soldiers called Charlie Company made a base in the Quang Ngai Province, South Vietnam. Charlie Company believed that the Quang Ngai Province was full of Vietcong, or North Vietnamese. Earlier in March several Generals fell into a boobie trap, set by the Vietcong, killing one and injuring the others. The division became angered and were encouraged to be aggressive in their next encounter with the enemy. On March 16th, 1968, the 11th Bridge of Charlie Company was airlifted to My Lai Village, under the control of Lieutenant William L. Calley. He believed that the village was a hideout for the Vietcong. Civilians were supposed to be evacuated to safety, although before the operation took place, Captain Eugene Kotouc addressed his troops saying, “Any civilians remaining in the villages would be considered Vietcong or actively sympathetic to the Vietcong,” At 7:22 a.m.......

Words: 2073 - Pages: 9

Jonestown Massacre

...On November 18, 1978, in what is known as the “Jonestown Massacre,” more than 900 members of an American cult died in a mass suicide-murder under their leader Jim Jones. The mass suicide-murder took place at the Jonestown settlement in the South American nation of Guyana. James founded what turned into the Peoples Temple. Jones moved to Guyanese jungle where he made the Peoples Temple into what was supposed to be a real life paradise. Who would've thought that a gift from Heaven would later on turn out to be a gift from Hell in 1978. Jim Jones began his own religion at a young age and he often visited different churches in his area. As Jones’s knowledge grew on religions he began taking what he learned and going to houses preaching and he also preached to younger children. He was no normal teenage boy he wasn’t so much into sports, he believed to be sinful, he liked to drink and dance. After he had gathered a good amount of followers he had developed a church of his own. Jones was the leader of his church named, “the Peoples Temple” and he demanded loyalty and preached sacrifice. He believed the American Capitalism was the reason for unhealthy balance in the world. The rich had too much money and the poor worked to hard to try to get money. The Peoples Temple helped people find jobs and was suppose to be fair. Jones church was growing and was very successful, until investigations began and Jones decided it was time to move the Peoples Temple to a different location. Jim......

Words: 948 - Pages: 4

Colfax Massacre

...“On this site occurred the Colfax Riot in which three white men and 150 negroes were slain. This event on April 13, 1873 marked the end of carpetbag misrule in the South.”[1] This is what is on the official historical marker located in Colfax, Louisiana, the stage that once played out the bloody Colfax massacre. This day occurred during the Reconstruction period and is one example of the increased violence against blacks after the Civil War and after slavery had been abolished. The 1872 election for the governor of Louisiana had come to have two victorious candidates. The Republican nomination William P. Kellogg and the Democratic nomination John McEnery the federal government stepped in and formally commanded William P. Kellogg as governor, though this had not deterred McEnery’s passion to also act as governor. Therefore both governors had inaugural balls separately held in their honor in January of 1873. It wasn’t until after the Mardi Gras celebrations of that year, the governor was to appoint liable candidates into differing local positions. Republicans and Democrats both solicited Kellogg for control of Grant Parish. Kellogg had ultimately appointed R. C. Register, a black man, as the parish judge and Daniel Shaw as the sheriff to the parish. Both of whom were Republicans and supporters of Kellogg. [2] The prior governor, Warmouth, had placed Alphonse Cazabat as judge and Christopher Columbus Nash as sheriff in the parish, both had been supporters of the Confederacy.......

Words: 1096 - Pages: 5

Hinamatsuri | Discuss The Roles Of Nature And Nurture With Regard To The Interpretation And Evaluation Of Sensory Data | good communication - 673 Words