Smooth Bore vs. Fog Nozzles

In: Science

Submitted By firehouse954
Words 1417
Pages 6
Old School: Smoothbore Nozzles in the Fire Service

The City of ______ Fire Department is in current discussion of using either smooth bore nozzle versus combination nozzles in commercial structures. This conversation has been a topic within the fire service since the introduction of the fog/combination nozzles in the 1960’s. Although there are positives to both pieces of equipment, I believe that the department needs to make a decision on which nozzle to use for a standard operating procedure and safety purposes.
To better understand the background of the contrasting views, we must look at how the fire service has developed around these two nozzles. The original nozzle was the smooth bore, partly because of its simple design-no moving parts or springs, just a piece of metal that allows water to take shape when it leaves.
When Dr. Charles Oyston obtained a patent on a spray nozzle in 1863, the debate slowly emerged. The U.S. Navy introduced the fog nozzle to thousand of men during World War II. Lloyd Layman, commander of the Coast Guard Fire School, discovered the indirect application of fog technique. It was taught at great length, since shipboard fires are very easily compartmentalized and a flammable liquid was the combustible. This fire condition was efficiently and safely extinguished with ease with the indirect fog attack method.
According to Layman, the rules for this success depended on the following:
1. The water must be in spray (fog) form.
2. The ceiling temperature must be 1,000°F at the site the water is applied.
3. Confinement of the steam within the building is essential.1
As peacetime occurred, the fog nozzle was introduced heavily into the fire service as a result of the experience aboard ships. The fire industry began to shift from…...

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