Silicon

In: Science

Submitted By clairev
Words 354
Pages 2
Silicon Silicon is an element in the periodic table. Silicon is a metalloid, which means it has both properties of a metal and non-metal, so it is a member of Group 14(IVA)/the carbon family. Its atomic number is 14, its atomic mass is 28.0855 and its density is 2.65g/cm3. Silicon is a solid at room temperature with a boiling point of 3265⁰ C and a melting point of 1414⁰ C. Silicon exists in two allotropic forms, which means it has two forms that have different physical and chemical properties. The amorphous form is a brown powder and the crystalline form has a metallic luster and a grayish colour. Silicon is very hard, very brittle and is a semiconductor, meaning it is able to allow an electrical current pass through it better than a non-conductor, like glass or rubber, but not as good as a conductor, like copper or aluminum. Silicon always occurs as a compound, so it is always combined with other elements. Silicon dioxide is the most abundant compound in the earth’s crust, most commonly taking the form of sand. This compound is used in the manufacture of glass and bricks, paper and rubber, as a food additive, as an insulating material, in cosmetics, and many more! The compound of silicon with other elements like boron, gallium or arsenic is used in the making of electronic devices such as transistors, rectifiers, microchips, etc. Silicon carbide is one of the hardest substances known which can be used as an abrasive or as a refractory material. Silicones, which include silicon, are used for a wide range of things from toys and adhesives to surgical implants and automobile engine parts! Other important ways silicon is used are: in the manufacture of steel and alloys, and to help build the cell walls of plant and animal life when they extract the silica from the water. Although, people can develop a serious lung disease called silicosis if they breathe in too much…...

Similar Documents

Pirates of Silicon Valley

...Watching the film helped me realized that the IPHONE that I’m using right now wouldn’t be possible without the brilliant idea of Steve Jobs. Mike and Steve got along very well, they conversed well and shared similar and constructive thoughts about ways to change the world and to do important things. He's quite intelligent and makes sense, although he doesn't always listen fully but then again for me he’s my favorite inventor in the entire world. After seeing Pirates of Silicon Valley, I understand the differences between being professional and intellectually inclined. Like in Steve Jobs case he can’t easily be approach without you being perfect to his eyes and because of this Bill Gates took advantage on him. How cruel and stupid Bill did to Steve, after he gotten everything to Steve Jobs he immediately relinquished the entire corporation of Steve. I felt so devastated for him perhaps because of Steve’s attitude brought him down. On the other hand of the movie, it shows that Steve is just an ordinary person who also faces failure. Every person who is already on top cannot avoid any failures in their every endeavor. Still you should fight this and continue to develop what is in your mind, not to become a failure one. The success of Steve Jobs includes his faith, passion, courage, innovation and his vision. Faith, in a way that he didn’t know what he is doing in his life and what should be his carrier all about. He still continues to pursue what he thinks and believes that......

Words: 735 - Pages: 3

Risk Analysis on Investment Decision (Silicon Arts Inc)

...Running head: CAPITAL BUDGETING Risk Analysis on Investment Decision Risk Analysis on Investment Decision Silicon Arts, Incorporated (SAI) is a manufacturer of circuits that are used in the manufacture of electronic equipment items. During their initial years in operation, there was an increase in the industry followed by a 40% decline. In order to remain competitive and stay profitable, SAI controlled expenses. Current trends indicate the industry may be on the rise again. SAI wants to develop some new capital investment projects that are in line with their goals: increase their market share, and keep pace with new technology (University of Phoenix, 2007). Future Scenarios The first task in the simulation was to examine probable future scenarios that could potentially affect SAI cash flow with two projects, Dig-image and W-Comm. Part of SAI’s plans is their desire to earn $54 million in their first year by selling 400,000 units, however they first need to determine their working capital. “Working capital rises over the early years of the project as expansion occurs. However, all working capital is assumed to be recovered at the end, a common assumption in capital budgeting” (Ross, Westerfield, & Jaffey, 2005, p. 183). SAI is expecting growth will be 20% in the first three years and then decrease 10% annually in years 4 and 5. SAI is expecting increasing competition, decreasing prices, and a short lifespan of the technology that could be obsolete......

Words: 1214 - Pages: 5

Is Managing Role Ambiguity the Number One Challenge Facing Employers in the Silicon Age?

...Generation Change: Is Managing Role Ambiguity The Number One Challenge Facing Employers in the Silicon Age? Generation Change: Is Managing Role Ambiguity The Number One Challenge Facing Employers in the Silicon Age? Are you struggling to keep your workforce motivated and harmonious in the face of constant change? Is your team struggling to deal with the ambiguity created by a fast-evolving market place? You aren’t alone, and a solution may be closer to home for your workforce than perhaps they first thought. A recent study conducted by Dr. Ben Searle of Macquarie University in Sydney has found significant links between workplace role ambiguity and an employees’ reported level of anger, anxiety and threat perception. Dr. Searle’s study involved 602 participants across a range of companies and industries fulfilling duties all the way up to managing director. The participant group was asked to self-report on perceptions of role ambiguity, experienced levels of anger, anxiety and workplace threat appraisal. In this study, participants were asked questions as to whether they fully understood what was expected of them at work on a day-to-day basis regarding particular tasks, or a range of tasks. This data was then compared with responses to questions which probed whether they had felt anxious or angry at work. Threat appraisal was determined by whether the respondent felt it was more or less likely that their work day was going to be a negative experience for......

Words: 791 - Pages: 4

Pirastes of Silicon

...Pirates of Silicon Valley In: Computers and Technology Pirates of Silicon Valley Watching the film helped me realized that the IPHONE that I’m using right now wouldn’t be possible without the brilliant idea of Steve Jobs. Mike and Steve got along very well, they conversed well and shared similar and constructive thoughts about ways to change the world and to do important things. He's quite intelligent and makes sense, although he doesn't always listen fully but then again for me he’s my favorite inventor in the entire world. After seeing Pirates of Silicon Valley, I understand the differences between being professional and intellectually inclined. Like in Steve Jobs case he can’t easily be approach without you being perfect to his eyes and because of this Bill Gates took advantage on him. How cruel and stupid Bill did to Steve, after he gotten everything to Steve Jobs he immediately relinquished the entire corporation of Steve. I felt so devastated for him perhaps because of Steve’s attitude brought him down. On the other hand of the movie, it shows that Steve is just an ordinary person who also faces failure. Every person who is already on top cannot avoid any failures in their every endeavor. Still you should fight this and continue to develop what is in your mind, not to become a failure one. The success of Steve Jobs includes his faith, passion, courage, innovation and his vision. Faith, in a way that he didn’t know what he is doing in his life and what should be his...

Words: 288 - Pages: 2

Silicon Wafers

...Silicon wafer is a thin slice of silicon crystal used in the fabrication of integrated circuits and other micro devices. Silicon is widely used in the semiconductor industry because it remains a semiconductor at higher temperatures than other semiconductor materials and because its native oxide is easily grown. Once grown its native oxide forms a better semiconductor/dielectric interface than other materials. The purpose of this article is to give a brief and basic explanation of the many different silicon wafer options available. If you are interested in purchasing any quantity of silicon wafers then Mi-Net Technology Ltd will be able to help. Please contact us for further information. Quality There are different qualities of silicon wafer available. The main qualities are PRIME, MONITOR and TEST. Prime wafers are wafers of top quality. They will generally be extremely flat and have a very low variation in thickness across the entire wafer. These wafers will be extremely clean and have a very low number of defects. Monitor and test wafers are used less for final manufacturing and more for research and quality control. They are not as clean or as flat as a prime wafer and may have many more defects across the wafer. They will however be cheaper. Growth Methods There are two common growth methods for silicon wafers. These are Czochralski and Float Zone. In the Czochralski method, high purity semiconductor grade silicon is melted down into a crucible. A......

Words: 859 - Pages: 4

Dropbox - the Gem of Silicon Valley

...thereafter secured seed funding from Y Combinator. Dropbox officially launched at 2008's TechCrunch50, an annual technology conference. Dropbox has become a verb over the past year (“Dropbox me”), and Silicon Valley has taken keen notice. By 2008 Houston had raised $7.2 million—enough cash, given its robust economic model, to get it to its current stage. Due to trademark disputes between Proxy, Inc. and Evenflow (Dropbox's parent company), Dropbox's official domain name was "getdropbox.com" until October 2009, when they acquired their current domain, "dropbox.com". In December 2009 Jobs beckoned and his partner, Arash Ferdowsi, for a meeting at his Cupertino office. Jobs was interested in Dropbox, the digital storage service that has surged to 50 million users, with another joining every second. Jobs presciently saw this sapling as a strategic asset for Apple. Houston cut Jobs’ pitch short: He was determined to build a big company, he said, and wasn’t selling, no matter the status of the bidder or the prospects of a nine-digit price. Jobs told them he was going after their market. “He said we were a feature, not a product,” says Houston. Jobs later followed up with a suggestion to meet at Dropbox’s San Francisco office, Houston proposed that they instead meet in Silicon Valley. “Why let the enemy get a taste?” he now shrugs cockily. Instead, Jobs went dark on the subject, resurfacing, at his final keynote speech, where he unveiled iCloud, and specifically......

Words: 1236 - Pages: 5

Silicon Valley

...Homework – Study Trip San Francisco & Silicon Valley Mag. Roland Suttner ------------------------------------------------- December 2013 “I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work.” – Thomas Alva Edison “Most great people have attained their greatest success just one step beyond their greatest failure” -Napoleon Hill Contents 1 Venture Capital 4 2 Mechanics of raising equity capital 5 2.1 Equity financing for private companies – Sources for funding 5 2.1.1 Angel Investors 5 2.1.2 Venture Capital Firms 6 2.1.3 Institutional Investors 6 2.1.4 Corporate Investors 6 2.2 Outside Investors 6 2.3 Exiting an Investment in a Private Company 7 3 The process of start-up funding 8 3.1 Idea and co-founder stage 8 3.2 Family and friends stage 8 3.3 Seed or angel round 8 3.4 Venture Capital Round 8 4 The Initial Public Offering 10 4.1 Advantages and Disadvantages of Going Public 10 5 Key Elements for successful Entrepreneurship 11 6 The importance of Silicon Valley in the U.S. venture capital system 13 6.1 Venture Capital Investment in the U.S. 13 6.1.1 Venture Capital Investment since 2006 13 6.1.2 Investment by industry 13 6.1.3 Investment by regions 15 6.2 Evolution of Silicon Valley 15 6.3 Silicon Valley – an advanced high tech entrepreneurial habitat 16 6.4 The Power of Clustering 16 6.5 Features of an advanced high tech entrepreneurial habitat 16 6.6 The high-tech......

Words: 8851 - Pages: 36

Comparing Silicon Valley and Hong Kong’s It Industry

...COMPARING SILICON VALLEY AND HONG KONG’S IT INDUSTRY Table of Contents 1.0 Introduction 3 2.0 Silicon Valley Characteristics & Special Feature 4 2.1 Inter-related industries under one hood 4 2.2 Risk Taker 5 2.3 Open source 5 2.4 Education 5 2.5 Work freedom 6 2.6 Work in diversity 6 2.7 Weather and environment 6 3.0 Comparison Between Silicon Valley and Hong Kong IT Industry 6 3.1 Business nature 7 3.2 Financial Capital 7 3.3 Infrastructure 7 3.4 Cultural factors 8 4.0 Hong Kong Limitations 9 4.1 Lack of Young IT Expertise 9 4.2 High Rental Cost for Companies 10 4.3 Lack of Local Venture Capital 10 4.4 Copyright and Patent Issue 11 5.0 Conclusion 11 References 12 1.0 Introduction Silicon Valley is in the southern portion of the San Francisco Bay Area in the United States. It is home to many of the world's largest technology corporations and small startup companies (Ref 1). In summer 2014, we took a technology field study trip to Silicon Valley with an aim to analyze the characteristics of IT industry in Silicon Valley and compare with Hong Kong. Through our study and information gathered from the site visits, we compare the synonym and antonym of the two places from different aspects. During the week of 18 Aug, we visited several technology companies like Google and CISCO, visited and attended lectures at 3 famous universities, and also spent the evenings experiencing local......

Words: 4260 - Pages: 18

Silicon Valley Technologies

...SILICON VALLEY TECHNOLOGIES Position: Manager, Sound Suppression (Advanced Products) Due Date: 12/04/2013 As a manager of Sound Suppression, Advanced Products, I got an opportunity to apply concepts that I have learned in the class into practice. Company IV was able to implemented decision successfully despite many ongoing communication barriers and conflicts. Communication and influence tactics played a major role in decision-making and helped resolve conflicts within the company. In the beginning, I felt that my interpersonal communication skills were very distorted, because I was overwhelmed with available resources and quite confused about how to prioritize given work. My feelings about the subject matter at hand acted as a barrier to communication, therefore, it took me a while to completely understand concerns regarding advanced products in my company. I feel that if I were able to talk to other managers at my company before starting the day at the company IV, I would have conducted the given tasks differently. I experienced multiple meanings of a word as a barrier to communication. During my meeting with the Director of advance products, I was trying to explain, a “fire incident” at the supplier of advanced products. However, my director interpreted word “fire” as “a layoff situation at the supplier factory”. I tried to explain her the situation twice with words, then used non-verbal gesture to explain the word “fire”. I believed that our communication was......

Words: 1338 - Pages: 6

Creation of Silicon Chips

...Creation of Silicon Chips D'yara L.Williams South Carolina State University CS 304 - Introduction to Computer Organizatikns & Architecture Dr. Y. Kim Feburary 25, 2015 Did you know that microprocessors today have more than 30 layers of complex circuits compared to the 5 layered circuit discovered in 1971? Silicon chips are also known as a monolithic integrated circuits, die, or processors. They’re miniature electronic brains that are everywhere in the electronic world, which processes data in the form of electrical currents traveling along a circuit. The natural semi-conductor of integrated chips is manufactured using sand. Beach sand contains a high percentage of the principal ingredient, silica or silicon dioxide, the most abundant element on earth besides oxygen. The process of making silicon chips is called fabrication. A wafer is a thin silicon disk sliced from a cylindrical ingot that is used as the principal ingredient for building integrated circuits. The creation of silicon chips is processed by ensuring product specifications, architectural specifications, creating a logic design, compose a physical representation and finalizations. However, engineers experience a problem with desiring to make electronic devices simpler but more powerful. Although the first computers came about before its invention, the silicon microprocessor is the advancement that made the modern computer era explode. The ability to create a......

Words: 1274 - Pages: 6

Pirates of the Silicon Valley Reflect Paper

...Pirates of the Silicon Valley is an incredible documentary film which is about the dual between Steve Jobs the Apple Company and Bill Gates of Microsoft. This movie draws out the evolution of the computers and how they advanced technology with the new creation of Apple computers in that era. Talking directly about Steve Job, Firth of all is to express his positive values which had been admired and having people compassionated on what are companionship of all the main characters, Steve Jobs, Steve Wazniac and with Bill Gates and Paul. Steve Jobs has a very high persistent to be a successful businessman even after he got fire from Apple company, he started his new companies named NeXT and Pixar in after 5 years to proof his absence was worse. Furthermore, this movies shows the struggling lives in college and ton of passions for what he was interesting in and with just a little investment to achieve his goal and somedays he will be a successful one and he did it, especially to show that failure is success which worth learning from your mistakes. However, despite his positive points there are many consequences to concern such as basically Apple copied idea from Xerox, a company which invited Steve Jobs to see the development of graphical interface and though with the silly idea to agree to let Apple looked at everything they had and Apple as it naturally stole everything it could. Thing had been gone more complicated when Microsoft as having Bill Gates is the owner tricked......

Words: 445 - Pages: 2

Through Silicon-Via (Tsv) Technology

...Through Silicon-Via (TSV) Technology Abstract Increasing demands for electronic devices with superior performance and functionality with longer battery life while reducing their sizes, weights and energy consumption has driven the semiconductor industry to develop more advanced packaging technologies. Among all different types of packaging technologies proposed, three-dimensional (3D) vertical integration (3D stacking of chips) using through silicon via (TSV) copper interconnect is currently considered one of the most advanced technologies in the semiconductor industry. The co-efficient of thermal expansion of copper is 5-6 times more than that of silicon. This leads to thermal stresses in the via. These stresses are analyzed in this paper. Also, these stresses lead to a change in carrier mobility. This leads to formation of keep out zones (KOZ) in surrounding silicon. The various factors affecting the size of the KOZs are also considered. 1 1 Introduction A via (Latin for path or way) is an electrical connection between layers in a physical electronic circuit that goes through the plane of one or more adjacent layers. A through-silicon via (TSV) is a vertical electrical connection (via) passing completely through a silicon wafer or die. This is an interconnection method in which holes are drilled through active chips, after which they are filled with an interconnect material. Different tiers of chips are then stacked on each other by......

Words: 2618 - Pages: 11

Broad-Band Continuous-Wave Parametric Wavelength Conversion in Silicon Nanowaveguides

...Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides Mark A. Foster1 , Amy C. Turner2 , Reza Salem1 , Michal Lipson2 , and Alexander L. Gaeta1 1 School 2 School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 alg3@cornell.edu Abstract: We demonstrate highly broad-band frequency conversion via four-wave mixing in silicon nanowaveguides. Through appropriate engineering of the waveguide dimensions, conversion bandwidths greater than 150 nm are achieved and peak conversion efficiencies of -9.6 dB are demonstrated. Furthermore, utilizing fourth-order dispersion, wavelength conversion across four telecommunication bands from 1477 nm (S-band) to 1672 nm (U-band) is demonstrated with an efficiency of -12 dB. © 2007 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (190.4380) Four-wave mixing; (130.5990) Semiconductors; (130.4310) Nonlinear; (130.3060) Infrared References and links 1. H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µ m wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 416 (2002). 2. M. Dinu, F. Quochi, H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2954 (2003). 3. T. Liang, L. Nunes, T. Sakamoto, K. Sasagawa, T. Kawanishi, M. Tsuchiya, G.......

Words: 5155 - Pages: 21

Silicon Valley's Gender Pay Gap

...Although the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights consented equal rights for men and women, it was only after the feminist movement in the 1960s that women really started enjoying equality in law, family life and work environment. Nonetheless, gender discrimination still exists in different forms and it is arguably a very sensitive issue in our society. One piece of writing that tackles this subject is an editorial called “Silicon Valley's Gender Pay Gap Is Actually A Gender Segregation Gap” published on Forbes Magazine website on April 2nd 2015. Tim Worstall, the author, is making a rhetorical argument on why the employment of men and women in Silicon Valley is divided into different sets of occupations, in order to find alternatives that might help solving the issue. At first sight the editorial seems persuasive and well written; nonetheless, at a closer look it evinces several flaws (such as unfounded arguments and instances of hasty generalization) that affect the overall credibility and cogency. The first factual argument of the writing, namely a report showing a significant gender pay gap both in general and specifically within the tech companies (para 1) aims at consolidating Worstall’s thesis; however, since he fails to cite the source, the reliability of his claim cannot be proven and the argument loses its strength. This specific, epideictic piece of evidence is then extrapolated into a deliberative argument when Worstall states that the report might......

Words: 777 - Pages: 4

Silicon

...silicon 14 | aluminium ← silicon → phosphorus | C ↑ Si ↓ Ge | Periodic Table - Extended Periodic Table | | | General | Name, Symbol, Number | silicon, Si, 14 | Chemical series | metalloids | Group, Period, Block | 14, 3, p | Appearance | dark gray, bluish tinge  | Atomic mass | 28.0855(3) g/mol | Electron configuration | [Ne] 3s2 3p2 | Electrons per shell | 2, 8, 4 | Physical properties | Phase | solid | Density (near r.t.) | 2.33 g·cm−3 | Liquid density at m.p. | 2.57 g·cm−3 | Melting point | 1687 K (1414 °C, 2577 °F) | Boiling point | 3538 K (3265 °C, 5909 °F) | Heat of fusion | 50.21 kJ·mol−1 | Heat of vaporization | 359 kJ·mol−1 | Heat capacity | (25 °C) 19.789 J·mol−1·K−1 | P/Pa | 1 | 10 | 100 | 1 k | 10 k | 100 k | at T/K | 1908 | 2102 | 2339 | 2636 | 3021 | 3537 | Vapor pressure | | Atomic properties | Crystal structure | Diamond Lattice | Oxidation states | 4 (amphoteric oxide) | Electronegativity | 1.90 (Pauling scale) | Ionization energies (more) | 1st: 786.5 kJ·mol−1 | | 2nd: 1577.1 kJ·mol−1 | | 3rd: 3231.6 kJ·mol−1 | Atomic radius | 110 pm | Atomic radius (calc.) | 111 pm | Covalent radius | 111 pm | Van der Waals radius | 210 pm | Miscellaneous | Magnetic ordering | nonmagnetic | Thermal conductivity | (300 K) 149 W·m−1·K−1 | Thermal expansion | (25 °C) 2.6 µm·m−1·K−1 | Speed of sound (thin rod) | (20 °C) 8433 m/s | Young's modulus | 47 GPa | Bulk modulus | 100......

Words: 2528 - Pages: 11

*Terms and conditions Apply* | Capítulos | Dental Imaging Phosphor Plates For Gendex - Size #2 Pack Of 4