Relation Between Technology and Productivity

In: Business and Management

Submitted By shihaab
Words 410
Pages 2
This assignment addresses the relationships between technological change, productivity, economic growth and socio-economic development at the macro level. It focuses on a range of questions with respect to the impact of innovation and technological change on productivity, growth, employment, human capital, inequality, poverty, sustainability and socio-economic development. These questions are studied in an international comparative perspective including advanced economies, developing economies and economies in transition. The analysis of growth and development will be enlarged to include processes of catch up, forging ahead and falling behind. In the sense that the study of micro-dynamics of households, firms and sectors contributes to our understanding of relationships at the macro-level.
A key concept relating innovation and technology with growth and development is productivity. Technological transformation is one of the major forces resulting in enhanced productivity and growth of income per capita. Productivity growth implies enhanced productive capabilities, which can potentially be used to fulfill a variety of human needs and realize social goals in the context of economic development. Socio-economic development is a broader concept than economic growth. It includes aspects such as the degree of inequality within and between societies, the environmental sustainability of increased production, the creation of employment and the fulfillment of basic human needs.
Drivers and mechanisms of technological change and their contribution to growth and development * the impact of demand factors on growth and technological change * the role infrastructure in growth * resource availability * education and human capital and their contribution to growth and development * health status as an aspect of human capital, with special reference to aids…...

Similar Documents

Key Issues in the International Relations Between Turkey and the Eu

...Key issues in the international relations between Turkey and the EU International relations between Turkey and the European Union are very complicated. The main ground considered while analyzing this problem is Turkey's aspiration to become member of the EU. From the very beginning, those attempts have been the subject of many controversies and Turkey had to face the strongest opposition of all the countries applying for accession. Unlike the other states, Turkey's integration is not as simple as inviting another member to the EU structures and its situation is difficult for many various reasons. First of all – there is Turkey's insufficient progress towards meeting all the required Copenhagen criteria: “- stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities, the existence of a functioning market economy as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the Union, the ability to take on the obligations of membership including adherence to the aims of political, economic and monetary union [1]”. Country is still struggling with maintaining stable democracy – military is too involved in the political life, ethnic and religious minorities are not respected enough, broadcast media is not entirely independent and some key issues between Turkey, Greece and Cyprus are still unresolved. There are also many additional factors that are taken into consideration in the public...

Words: 1592 - Pages: 7

Trade Relation Between Australia and Indonesia

...Trade relation between Australia and Indonesia International trade is the exchange of goods and services between countries. The countries that are in the scope now are Australia and Indonesia. There are many advantages to international trade but countries must choose which goods or services to produce for export and which goods should it import. To be able to answer the question which good should country produce or import the concept of comparative advantage comes in hand. A country is said to have a comparative advantage in production of a good if it can produce better at a lower opportunity cost than another country. In the article above Australia are willing to form relationships and trade with Indonesia, due to the advantage of their economy. There are an estimated 15,000 Indonesian studying in Australia where they provide 500 million to the Australian economy. Furthermore Indonesia is a country with beautiful beaches and favourable climate has a comparative advantage output of tourist service. Indonesia receives about 1million tourist just from Australians. The international economics part of the course was used to analyze this course. The Australians gain low price vacation at a low price than the domestic one “It’s a cheap and easy option. A lot of people my age have gone [to Bali], or talk about going,” he said while the Australian issue 400 full scholarships to the Indonesian postgraduate to complete their masters. The two country benefits from each other. The...

Words: 661 - Pages: 3

The Relation Between Health Conditions and Educational Achievement

...to fully engage in or take advantage of learning opportunities at school or at home (Hanson et al., 2004). Schools have long recognized the relation between student health and educational progress, and have played a role in diagnosing and treating student health conditions such as vision, hearing, and speech impairments, as well as asthma, mental disorders, and more recently obesity (Council of Chief State School Officers, 1998). Research from the medical community confirms that common health conditions can have negative consequences on children’s ability to learn. Vision problems in children are associated with developmental delays and often require special education and additional services beyond childhood (Centers for Disease Control, 2004). Children with asthma miss more days of school than children without asthma, and experience restrictions in other daily activities, such as play and sports (Newacheck, 2000). Significant hearing loss among children can interfere with phonological and speech perception abilities required for language learning, which subsequently can lead to poor academic performance, especially in reading (National Institutes of Health, 1993). Children with speech impairments perform more poorly on reading tests than children in non-impaired comparison groups (Catts, 1993). 4 The relation between health conditions and educational achievement has drawn increasing attention from social scientists. Datar and Sturm (2006) and Datar et......

Words: 598 - Pages: 3

Increasing Productivity Through Information Technology

...Abstract Information Technology has become a significant component of new capital investment (some estimate put it at 30%) and several economists look to computers as the best hope for a sustainable increase in economic growth rates. Thus the question arises, can computers and the usage of information technology help attain the break-even earlier resulting in more and more profits? Thomas K. Landauer, in his book, The Trouble with Computers (MIT Press, 1995), argues that computers have been unproductive due to poor design and deployment. To support this thesis, Landauer Drwasn on economic data and analysis as reported by other researchers, and offers voluminous anecdotal evidence of computer shortcomings. He then proceeds to offer his own solution to this problem and provides an argument that computers can be improved in ways that would make them more useful, usable and productive. Introduction In India, Information Technology has built up a valuable brand equity over a decade. It is estimated that IT sector in the country has been growing at a rapid rate of over 35% per year. The contribution of IT has not been only limited to Banking, ITES and BPO sector, but also to the ever-growing Manufacturing sector. IT today provides the communication and analytical power to the organization to conduct business and compete at the global level. In the broadest sense, information technology refers to both the hardware and software that are used to store, retrieve, and manipulate......

Words: 2276 - Pages: 10

What Are the Ethical Issues in Relations Between Business and Customers?

...What are the ethical issues in relations between business and customers? Nowadays the level of competition between businesses is high because of big quantity of producers of relatively same goods and services. Because of that, companies try to do as much work as it is necessary to somehow differentiate their product from competitors. Their profit is firstly dependent on how much money people are willing to pay for the product or service (based on their income), secondly on the level of customer loyalty and thirdly on the truthfulness of the company itself. To adapt to the high-competitive environment, companies need to build strong customer relationships, it is core component in future successful sales. If people are interested and satisfied with product and service, they will continue to repurchase it and long-term relations can be established. The aim of any company is to save existing customers and attract new ones. To attract new customers company should use any tools that will work. To establish long-term successful and profitable relations, company should definitely conduct its business in ethic way. However, sometimes there are probably situations, when doing wrong things (grey market, absence of customer care, bad/cheap product) may result in much higher income. This view indicates that ethics and profit are inversely related (Bowie 1998). The situation, when stated promotion does not coincide with the reality is rather common and is a good example of unethical...

Words: 1514 - Pages: 7

Relationship Between Science and Technology

...RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY BY FOLAYAN PATRICK MATRIC NO: SS/PP/2352 BEING A TERM PAPER SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSIPHY, SAINTS PETER AND PAUL MAJOR SEMINARY BODIJA IBADAN, IN AFFILIATION WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN IN PARTAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF ARTS IN DEGREE (HON) IN PHILO COURSE: SCIENCE AND MANKIND LECTURER: DR. I IKPOKOLO COURSE CODE: SS/GES/202 DATE: JANUARY 2014 INTRODUCTION During most of history, there has been little systematic or continuing interchange between science, which primarily seeks theoretical or abstract models for natural phenomena, and technology, which seeks to make practical devices for human use. The interaction between science and technology has gone both ways. On the one hand, Science knowledge has been applied to improve and even predict technologies.......

Words: 5156 - Pages: 21

The Concepts and Relations Between Efficiency and Effectiveness, Lean and Sustainability in Organisations

... The concepts and relations between efficiency and effectiveness, Lean and sustainability in organisations. Introduction Efficiency and effectiveness are two important, basic parts of work organisation which have a different focus. Challenge is to handle both of them. The question is: Does every organisation concentrates on both concepts? Lean approach is commonly use in a long-term companies focusing on minimizing waste. Sustainability is very comprehensive, holistic and challenging. The aim of this essay is to discuss the concepts mentioned above. This essay will describe each one separately and then discuss relations between them. 1.Review of the concepts 1.1 Efficiency Theory describes efficiency as to do things right. It is a relationship between outputs and inputs which can be measured. Main focus here is to use resources (mainly human) in a efficient way which means to achieve a specific product while meeting as little waste as possible. According to Reddin from University of New Brunswick 100% efficiency can be obtained by high output in relation to high input, the same result can be achieved where both output and input are low. Efficient managers seek to solve problems and reduce costs (Cole&Kelly, 2011). Those managers follow four step POMC approach which contains planning, organizing, motivating and controlling. Management does design group of people who work together with maximum efficiency to achieve common goals. Managers of operational planning are......

Words: 2451 - Pages: 10

The Relation Between Wealth and Happiness

...THE RELATION BETWEEN WEALTH AND HAPPINESS A1: The articles The Sandra Bullock Trade and But Will It Make You Happier? both dis-cuss the relation between wealth and happiness, and it doesn’t require much to figure out, that these articles agree that happiness doesn’t depend on wealth in general. But as The Sandra Bullock Trade nearly refuses any connection between the two and even states that “if you have an unsuccessful marriage (…) you will remain significantly unfulfilled” (p. 2), But Will It Make You Happier? points out that even though happiness isn’t dependent on income, your buys will influence your mood. The Sandra Bullock Trade acknowledges that poor people are generally unhappier, but the article also claims that as long as your basic needs are fulfilled, money makes no difference. This is probably the biggest disagreement between the articles, as But Will It Make You Happier? is somewhat more capable of differ-entiating the dilemma. Instead of just having a one-tack mind, the article focuses on both the pleasure that money can bring, but it also declares how we are more likely to find joy when we buy social activities than when we buy material objects. A2: The Sandra Bullock Trade catches your attention from the very beginning. The headline itself makes you want to read it, because a celebrity like Sandra Bullock is a person that will instantly catch your attention whether you want her to or not. Another means, which The Sandra Bullock Trade uses, is to......

Words: 742 - Pages: 3

Relation Between Stress, Performance & Organizational Comittment

... 7. REFERENCIAS ABRAHAM, J.D., HANSSON, R.O. (1996). Gender differences in the usefulness of goal-directed coping for middle-aged and older workers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 34, 549-561. ARYEE S. y colaboradores (1998). Family responsive variables and retention relevant outcomes among employed parents. Human Relations. 51(1), 73-89. BARON R.A. (1988). Negative effects of destructive criticism: Impact on conflict, self-efficacy, and task performance. Journal of Applied Psychology.73, 199-207. BASHAW, E.R. y GRANT, S.E. (1994). Exploring the distinctive nature of work commitments. Their relationships with personal characteristics, job performance and propensity to leave. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management.14, 41-56. BAUGH, S.G. y ROBERTS, R.M. (1994). Professional and organizational commitment among engineers: Conflicting or complementing? IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management.41, 108-114. BEATTY, R. W. (1989). Competitive human resource advantage through the strategic Management of performance. Human Resource Planning.12, 179-194. BECKER, T.E., y KLIMOSKI, R. J. (1989). A field study of the relationship between the organizational feedback environment and performance. Personnel Psychology.42, 353-358 BEEHR, T.A. y BHAGAT, R.S. (1985). Human stress and cognition in organizations: An integrated perspective. New York: Wiley and Sons BEGLEY, T.M. y CZAJKA, J.M. (1993). Panel analysis of moderating effects of commitment on job......

Words: 42818 - Pages: 172

Relation Between Stress and Physical Illness

...Abstract This research looks at the relationship between physical illness and stress. The goal is the show that there is in fact a direct link between stress and physical diseases. This has been done through studies involving rats, monkeys, and even parents of children with cancer. Upon examination of these studies, it becomes apparent that even though differences in characteristics between individuals cause much variability in the link between illness stress, there still proves to be a strong correlation through changes in physiological and behavorial responses to stress which influence susceptibility to disease. Introduction Almost everybody faces some form or variation of stress over their lifetime. Stress is defined as “a state of psychological tension or strain” (Morris, C., & Maisto, A. 2008) resulting from adverse or demanding circumstances. The cause of stress can vary; whether it be from pressures at work or school, commitments to family life and friends, or maybe even financial difficulties. Anytime a person is met with a stressor, any environmental demand that may create stress, rapid changes are sent forward throughout the body. Almost every system in the body is preparing itself to encounter any danger that may be perceived. (Human Diseases and Conditions. n.d.) There are many instances where these stress responses in short-term bursts, or acute stress, can actually be beneficial to a person. Examples include the adrenaline rush one may get when......

Words: 1382 - Pages: 6

Relation Between Motivation Attitudes and Behavior

...EXPANSION AND GROWTH Currently, Xiaomi only operates in Asia and is predominantly sold in China, but has revealed plans to expand to other markets in the near future. Chances of success in them are rather high and, moreover, the organisation can further solidify its position in China and increase smartphone sales not just internationally, but also domestically. The foreign locations in which Xiaomi is most likely to prosper are countries with developing economies such as Brazil, Mexico, Russia, Turkey, India, and Southeast Asia and the reasons for the possible prosperity are the developed methods and the reputation of the company. GOOD QUALITY AND AFFORDABILITY Until recently, it was widely believed that direct proportionality existed between quality and price and neither can be low or high at the expense of the other; Xiaomi, however, describes its goal as “Best-in-class user experience at affordable prices” and, evidently, it keeps up to the promise, providing well elaborated handsets at a moderate price. This has proven to be a well-received strategy in China and would likely be embraced by future customers in new markets as well. COST REDUCTION As stated in the foregoing paragraph, Xiaomi manages to keep price low, but not at the expense of quality; rather, this comes from cutting expenses from fields such as marketing and having the opportunity to employ qualified workers at lower salaries in comparison to Western competitors. Xiaomi avoids conventional......

Words: 806 - Pages: 4

Relation Between Science and Religion

...on What is the Relation between Science and Religion William Lane Craig Examines several ways in which science and theology relate to each other. Back in 1896 the president of Cornell University Andrew Dickson White published a book entitled A History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom. Under White’s influence, the metaphor of “warfare” to describe the relations between science and the Christian faith became very widespread during the first half of the 20th century. The culturally dominant view in the West—even among Christians—came to be that science and Christianity are not allies in the search for truth, but adversaries. To illustrate, several years ago I had a debate with a philosopher of science at Simon Fraser University in Vancouver , Canada, on the question “Are Science and Religion Mutually Irrelevant?” When I walked onto the campus, I saw that the Christian students sponsoring the debate had advertised it with large banners and posters proclaiming “Science vs. Christianity.” The students were perpetuating the same sort of warfare mentality that Andrew Dickson White proclaimed over a hundred years ago. What has happened, however, in the second half of this century is that historians and philosophers of science have come to realize that this supposed history of warfare is a myth. As Thaxton and Pearcey point out in their recent book The Soul of Science, for over 300 years between the rise of modern science in the 1500’s and the late 1800s the......

Words: 4080 - Pages: 17

Relationships Between Productivity, Reputation, and Strategy

...Relationships Between Productivity, Reputation, and Strategy    Abstract:  Businesses seek to maximize productivity because it increases efficiency, motivates  employees, and can help firms compete on the strategic elements of time, cost, and quality.  Productivity has been shown to be positively correlated with reputation such that firms with good  reputations tend to have higher productivity.  Reputation can be improved through corporate  social responsibility initiatives that seek to enhance social and environmental wellbeing.  Improved reputation can provide a sustainable competitive advantage and increase the perceived  quality of a firm’s goods or services. ......

Words: 1787 - Pages: 8

The Evolving Relation Between Earnings, Dividends, and Stock Repurchases

...The evolving relation between earnings, dividends, and stock repurchases Douglas J. Skinner Journal of Financial Economics, 2008 Abstract — This paper examines how the relation between earnings and payout policy has evolved over the last three decades. Three principal groups of payers have emerged: firms that pay dividends and make regular repurchases, firms that make regular repurchases, and firms that make occasional repurchases. Firms that only pay dividends are largely extinct. Repurchases are increasingly used in place of dividends, even for firms that continue to pay dividends. While other factors help explain the timing of repurchases, the overall level of repurchases is fundamentally determined by earnings. The results suggest that repurchases are now the dominant form of payout. I. SUMMARY Corporate payout policy and reported earnings have changed significantly over the last 30 years. Fama and French (2001) report that the proportion of listed US firms paying regular cash dividends declined from 66.5% in 1978 to 20.8% in 1999, and DeAngelo, DeAngelo, and Skinner (2000) show that special dividends, an important part of firms’ payout policies until the 1960s, have all but disappeared. DeAngelo, DeAngelo, and Skinner (2004) report that aggregate regular dividends paid by US firms increase from 1978 to 2000, largely due to an increasingly concentrated distribution of dividend payments. Stock repurchases first emerged as an economically significant phenomenon in......

Words: 573 - Pages: 3

Relations Between Usa and Uk

...Relations between the US and the UK Any complete justification of the relationship between the United States and the United Kingdom will need to start since the very beginning when a group of men migrated to another country and started to think up in a different idea of nation, but recognizing after all their inheritance from English traditions. This essay is going to be more focused on to the ethnic and political relations these two countries share in common and how their relation is distinguished to the point that it has been called a “special relationship.” In order to have a clear understanding about the relations between the United States of America and the United Kingdom is necessary to know their past since most of their history reflects present-day manifestations. First of all, it is important to state that every epoch is different, everyone who intends to give historical approach to these major countries needs to be situated in time and context since the history of the two has many particularities and it is too broad to explain all aspects. When the first north Americans settled in that new and extended land they started to think in a rebellion sense of been independent; subsequently of what would be the leading politic of this nation, then for British soon weakened their relation; at that moment, the five men including Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson started...

Words: 1198 - Pages: 5

George Michael: Freedom George Michael: Freedom (2017) | Gestisci contenuti e dispositivi | Vivre les émotions avec son corps