Open Systems

In: Business and Management

Submitted By pauls5321
Words 1197
Pages 5
Open Systems Concept
Applied Management Concepts

We have read and understand the plagiarism policy as outlined in the syllabus and the sections in the Student Bulletin relating to the IWU Honesty/Cheating Policy. By affixing this statement to the title page of my paper, we certify that we have not cheated or plagiarized in the process of completing this assignment. If it is found that cheating and/or plagiarism did take place in the writing of this paper, we understand the possible consequences of the act/s, which could include expulsion from Indiana Wesleyan University.
Open Systems Concept There are many models that affect business and one of them that has been examined for more than fifty years is the systems model of business. In this paper, the authors will examine what the open systems model is versus the closed systems model. The authors will also explain how these systems impact decision-making within an organization, and how The Vera Bradley Company makes decisions in light of using the open systems approach. “A system is commonly defined as a group of interacting units or elements that have a common purpose” (Heil, 2006). Systems theory can be divided into two categories: closed versus open systems. Ludwig von Bertanlanffy, a biologist, initially developed open system theory and it became readily apparent that it was immediately applicable across all disciplines. It defines the concept of a system, where "all systems are characterized by an assemblage or combination of parts whose relations make them interdependent ("General systems theory," 1968). Before the 1960’s, most businesses focused on more of a closed system of business in which the organization was independent from the outside world. During the 1960’s, the open system theory was further developed. This theory explained how businesses were…...

Similar Documents

Systems Open or Closed

...“Systems: Open or Closed?” In her essay, “Systems: Open or Closed,” Virginia Satir argues that open systems are preferable to closed systems. Although one would think of systems as pertaining to business, Satir maintains that they can be used to describe human relationships. Specifically, the author believes that “the implications of systems thinking for personal, family, and societal behaviour are evident everywhere today” (Satir 298). First, Satir’s essay discusses the definition of a system using specific examples, such as bread and steam. Satir explains that systems consist of many interrelated parts, which contain order. Subsequently, Satir outlines the parts of a system. She argues that systems should possess a purpose or a goal, which for families, involves enhancing the growth of individuals. The parts of a family system include the individual people, and the order refers to aspects such as self-esteem, rules, and communication. Families maintain energy in the system by through basic needs and beliefs. Finally, families interact with the outside world by relating to change. In the next part of the article, Satir outlines the two types of systems as being open and closed. In this section, she emphasizes the beliefs and characteristics of both system types. She explains that the main difference between the systems involves the reaction to change. While a closed system is disconnected from the outside world, an open system involves interconnection among the......

Words: 466 - Pages: 2

Open System Interconnection

...the telephone company central office and the customer’s premises. These lines are associated with toll free numbers (such as 800, 877, 888). Leased lines, also known as tie lines, are lines that are leased from the telephone company. Useage of these lines are usually gauged by the amount of time the lines are used, or where they are connected to. Private Branch eXchange (PBX) and Centrex A PBX is a localized telephone system that allows a company to organize different phone numbers within an office. This system is managed and maintained inside of the company. Centrex allows the same type of control, except the equipment is located, managed, and maintained at the phone company. The layers of the International Organization for Standardization- Open Systems Interconnection (ISO-OSI) model The application layer is where communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. The presentation layer is usually part of an operating system, that converts incoming and outgoing data from one presentation format to another. The session layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogs between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connection coordination. The transport layer manages the end-to-end control and error-checking. It ensures complete data transfer. The network layer handles the routing of the......

Words: 310 - Pages: 2

Open Systems Theory

...CPA904 – Applied Payroll Management Case Study - NutriGrow Submitted by Deborah Brimner, Debra Conrad, Grace Hsieh, Ashley MacAdam, and Monika Schmidt On February 28, 2013 Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION 3 2 BENCHMARKING 4 2.1 THE FIVE STEPS OF BENCHMARKING 4 2.2 THE PAYROLL BENCHMARKING TEAM 5 2.3 ORGANIZATIONS CHOSEN TO BENCHMARK 5 3 LIST OF ASSUMPTIONS 7 4 ENVIRONMENTAL SCAN 8 4.1 STAKEHOLDERS 8 4.1.1 Internal Stakeholders 8 4.1.2 External Stakeholders 8 4.2 INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL OPPORTUNITIES AND CONSTRAINTS 9 5 ISSUES 10 5.1 THE PAYROLL SYSTEM 10 5.2 PAYROLL PROCESSES AND PROCEDURES 13 5.3 TIME REPORTING SYSTEM 15 5.4 PAYROLL AND HR INFORMATION SHARING 17 6 OTHER ISSUES 20 6.1 PROJECT MANAGEMENT 20 6.2 CHANGE MANAGEMENT & COMMUNICATION 20 6.3 SPECIAL REPORT REQUESTS FROM OTHER DEPARTMENTS 21 6.4 PRIVACY ISSUES ARISING FROM THE NEW SOFTWARE SYSTEM 21 6.5 PAYROLL-RELATED CONCERNS AS COMPANY EXPANDS 22 7 PAYROLL’S ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION 22 8 ACTION PLAN AND TIMELINE 23 8.1 IMPORTANT DEADLINES 23 8.2 TIMELINE 23 8.3 POTENTIAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS/MILESTONES 24 9 CONCLUSION 25 10 REFERENCES 26 11 APPENDIX 28   1 Introduction NutriGrow is a Canadian owned and operated agricultural supplies manufacturer, operating in the province of Manitoba. The organization has been in business for 60 years, with relatively slow growth until the recent introduction of a new product that was marketed to large agri-businesses with......

Words: 7715 - Pages: 31

Open and Closed Source Systems

... | |From: | | |Class: | | |Date: | | |Re: |Individual Assignment for Week 3 (Open and Closed Source Systems) | A collaboration of people contributing free software is the key to Linux becoming a technically impressive product. Linux is a UNIX variant, but is much more effective do to the ability to create and use free software. Not UNIX Linux is an operating system created based on the Unix operating system all of the improvements to Unix used GNU tools to create the kernel that would become Linux. GNU is an acronym that stands for “Not Unix” and is part of a project of people collaborating over the Internet, creating free to use software and source codes. According to Stallings, W. (2012) “Linus Torvalds, a Finnish student of computer science, wrote the initial version.” and “posted an early version of Linux on the Internet in 1991.". Since then, a number of people, collaborating over the Internet, have contributed to the development......

Words: 399 - Pages: 2

Open and Closed Source Systems

...Open and Close Source Systems Paper Pos 355 Open and Closed Source Systems Paper POS/355 Open and Closed Source Systems Paper GNU GPL (General Public License) defined as the copy left or free licensed software (, 2007). When making an invention the creator must have copyrights to protect them from their inventions. No one wants their inventions taken from them. They can loss acknowledgement or worse the royalties not given to them. Copyrights mean the right to copy; generally, it gives the copyright holder many other rights to their software or products. Creators who work hard to make their software or products a reality, they want that accreditation for their works; and they can determine who can take the work and financially benefit for the use it. It is a form of intellectual property; like patent, trademark, and trade secret (, 2012). By contrast, the GNU GPL is freedom of a guarantee to change and share the versions of the programs or software’s (, 2007). Most organizations use GNU GPL for their software and it with their authors also that release the work. The licenses are put in place for developer’s freedom and to change and share their work that they develop; this is GNU General Public License. There are steps that are taken to use GNU GLP. (1) assert copyright on the software, and (2) offer you this license giving you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify it, and this the developers that uses GNU GLP protect your......

Words: 482 - Pages: 2

Open/Close Operating Systems

...Operating systems are a necessity when dealing with computers. Without an operating system, it will be hard to run any program on your computer. There are two types of operating systems an open source and a closed source. Depending on what you want in your operating system, whether you are looking to run your programs or want to be able to program your system will depend on what system you are looking for. There are so many factors that go into making an operating system run the way a person expects. Many of them are done without us even knowing unless you are well educated in the way an operating system operates. Take the open source operating system, the source code is open to the public, and you are also able to change anything you like free of charge. Open source allows you to be able to look at the programming code and debug any problems that you could come across. Most of the time the people that use this type of source are educated programmers that understand the in and outs of an operating system. Because an open source is available to everyone, there are constant updates to this type of operating system. Also since the code is included in the program, it makes it very easy to make any additions to the program. This will give you the best chance of using a bug free operating system. Also, an open source system has no charges that come along with it. Many people have different uses for the same operating system, and an open source allows you to customize it the way......

Words: 908 - Pages: 4

Open/Closed Source Operating Systems

...Open/closed source operating systems Scott Delaney POS/355 Introduction to Operational Systems June 8, 2014 Jeff Rugg Open/closed source operating systems There is often confusion over what is and what is not an open source operating system is. For example most people believe that if the operating system is free it is open source. Open source does not refer to whether the program is free or not, but the source code of the operating system being open to the public to change and improve upon (D'Amico, 2009). Traditionally open source operating systems are free of charge. A good example of a true open source operation system is ReactOS. This operating system was and is currently developed by a community of developers. ReactOS is unlike most open source operating system and is not Linux based (ReactOS, 2014). This operating system has been written from scratch with the same design principles as Windows NT architecture. The best part of ReactOS is that the drivers and applications that run on Windows can be run on this operating system without any change. This ability can allow the operating system to run on networks that are Windows based. The polar opposite of open source is closed source operating systems an example of this is HP-UX. This is an operating system created by Hewlett-Packard and is UNIX based. HP-UX is based on a traditional open source code but because it is not open to development by a community and is proprietary operating system for......

Words: 591 - Pages: 3

Open System Interconnection 7 - Layer Reference Model

...OSI Model Open System Interconnection แบบจำลองเครือข่าย ( Network Model ) เสนอ อาจารย์ ปริญญา น้อยดอนไพร จัดทำโดย 1. นางสาวกนกอร ไกรนรา รหัสนักศึกษา 5240410501 2. นางสาวกมลชนก บัวหยาด รหัสนักศึกษา 5240410502 1. จุฑามาศ ฤทธิมนตรี 5240410516 3. นางสาวจุฑามาศ ฤทธิมนตรี รหัสนักศึกษา 5240410516 4. นายเชาวนัส นวลรัตน์ รหัสนักศึกษา 5240410521 5. นายทิชากร ศรีอาวุธ รหัสนักศึกษา 5240410530 6. นางสาวปิยะธิดา ศรีส่วน รหัสนักศึกษา 5240410549 7. นายวราพล แช่ตั้ง รหัสนักศึกษา 5240410565 8. นางสาววินิตา เพชรทอง รหัสนักศึกษา 5240410569 9. นางสาว สิริมา เพชรรัตน์ รหัสนักศึกษา 5240410578 10. นางสาวสุชากรณ์ หนูชู รหัสนักศึกษา 5240410579 8. จุฑามาศ ฤทธิมนตรี 5240410516 9. สุชากรณ์ หนูชู 5240410579 10. จุฑามาศ ฤทธิมนตรี 5240410516 11. สุชากรณ์ หนูชู 5240410579 รายงานฉบับนี้เป็นส่วนหนึ่งของรายวิชา 928-202 การสื่อสารข้อมูลและเครือข่าย มหาวิทยาลัยสงลานครินทร์ วิทยาเขตสุราษฎร์ธานี ภาคการศึกษาที่ 2 ปีการศึกษา 2553 คำนำ ในโลกปัจจุบัน คอมพิวเตอร์ ได้ก้าวเข้ามามีบทบาทในชีวิตประจำวันอย่างกว้างขวาง ทั้งในส่วนของการใช้งานโดยตรง เช่น การใช้ในองค์กรธุรกิจต่าง ๆ การควบคุมระบบการเจรจาทั้งทางบก ทางน้ำ และทางอากาศ การติดต่อสื่อสารแลกเปลี่ยนข้อมูลทั้งในระยะใกล้ไปจนถึงระยะไกล ข้ามโลก รวมไปถึงการใช้ในด้านความบันเทิงทั้งเกมส์คอมพิวเตอร์หรือภาพยน ตร์ที่สร้างด้วยคอมพิวเตอร์กราฟิก เป็นต้น ดังนั้น กลุ่มของข้าพเจ้าจึงได้จัดทำรายงาน...

Words: 686 - Pages: 3

Open Closed Source System

...developers by providing rights to other users to use and alter other programs. The rights for a user consist of a programmer who develops a program and wants to distribute this program through GNU the developer must allow other users the ability whether by gratis or by fee give an user open access to the source code of the program followed by the rights to the user who decides to access the source code. There are two steps of rights developers must abide by; the first right is asserting copy rights of the software to all users who wish to utilize the program. The second step of rights offers the license of the software to the user and permitting the user legal permission to change, copy, distribute, and modify the software. The free software available to all users is not warrant for defects or errors and the developer cannot be held reliable for faults to the program. Some modified software may have problems running of some operating systems due to manufactures prohibiting certain modified software that may be patented and due to this the General Public Licensing uses different provisions to extend other alternatives through copyright laws to create ways for software to properly operate on the operating system. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE. (Copyright © 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. <>). Retrieved from New York Times. (2013). BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY; One Man's Fight for Free Software. Retrieved from......

Words: 482 - Pages: 2

Open Source Operating Systems

...1-3 Short Paper: Open Source Operating Systems Southern New Hampshire University September 7, 2014 In 1991, Linus Torvalds created Linux and after a couple releases and improvements, the computer community caught on. Some advantages of the Linux Operating System are low cost, stability, performance, network friendliness, flexibility, compatibility, choice, fast and easy installation, full use of hard disk, multitasking, security and open source (Haas, 2014) . There is no major initial investment needed to obtain the Linux operating system. There is no fee for a license unlike Microsoft Windows. For comparative purposes, Windows 8.1 64-bit is retailing for 96.99 at BestBuy and 99.99 at With no initial monetary investment, Linux gives many potential users an opportunity to try the OS. The ease of exposure to the Linux OS make it easier to increase adopters and faithful users of the OS. Linux’s stability can contributed to its user permission design. Linux runs with lowest permission levels possible which minimizes the possibility of damaging the system. Linux is written to survive in the way it keeps program memory space and system kernel resources separate (Cedar Valley Tech, 2009). Also since Linux is open-source, bugs are fixed by an army of ready developers who are not trapped within the confines of a software manufacturer. Though no operating system is perfect, Linux can run for years without needing to be restarted (Godbey, 2006). Linux performs well......

Words: 978 - Pages: 4

Open and Closed Source Operating System Comparison

...Open and Closed Source Operating System Comparison POS-355 Open and Closed Source Operating System Comparison Open and Closed Source are the two model of how most software is distributed. The open source code is that exactly, free open-sourced code. Meaning the core functions of the written code are given to a potential developer and that developer is able to manipulate, add to, or change any of the functions of the code. This holds true from the basic core functions or the code to small additional code snippets. FOSS or free and open source software do not typically limit or inhibit the use of the software. However with all of this free distribution, there can be some open sourced software that might have license-based restrictions or redistribution. These restrictions are not overwhelming though. The software can be re-distributed for free, after a developer has modified the code, as long as credit is given to the original manufacturer. FOSS also allows for the code to be modified and then re-compiled, so it can be sold as a complete project. Some examples of this type of re-distribution is Red Hat Inc. Red Hat Inc. takes different pieces of code, pieces it together into a really nice and user friendly interface, and then Red Hat re-distributes this re-compiled code as Red Hat Linux. There have many different flavors and iterations, but as long as Red Hat gives credit in the development to the originally creator, there is no problem with Red Hat re-distributing this...

Words: 844 - Pages: 4

Open System Interconnection

...Open System Interconnection CMGT/245 IS Security Concepts Open System Interconnection The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) supplies all the techniques and steps of essential needs to connect one computer to any other in a network. It is a conjectural model that is used commonly in network plan, and in constructing decision. Generally, real networks cling to the Open System Interconnection, however, there are variances with views to the true model. The Open Systems Interconnection supplies an ordinary technique for how current networks work. It separate the technique and steps necessary for a network connection in seven different layers. Each higher division conforms on services given by a lower division. For a complete network connection, information is connected from the top layer on one computer throughout the remaining lower layer, and have a backup of the layers to other computers. The supporting items below explains each layer making assessment for real networking formation as required. 1. Physical Layer: The base layer, physical layer supply the features result in a physical method, used to provide a network connection. The physical layer network result in a physical method, which is a network cable that can transport bits between nodes on the physical network. The physical network can be from an end-to-end, which will result in between two points, or multipoint, which will result in between different points. It can cover half-duplex of one place at a...

Words: 1046 - Pages: 5

Open System

...include: sociotechnical system theory, quantitative management, organizational behavior, and system theory. The sociotechnical system theory is an approach to understanding the relationship between technology, individuals, organizations and society in work place design. "The sociotechnical systems approach says that a change in one part means there will have to be corresponding changes in other parts. “The sociotechnical systems approach says that a change in one part, means there will have to be a corresponding change in other parts. “The quantitative management approach involves the use of mathematical modeling to find the best solutions to problems. One important component of the quantitative management approach is an ability to objectively collect information about a problem and possible solutions to develop appropriate, and useful, mathematical models. Organizational behavior theory usually represents concepts that help a company create better management practices. Concepts such as leadership, decision making, team building, motivation, and job satisfaction are all facets of organizational behavior and responsibilities of management. Systems theory is a broad perspective that allows managers to examine patterns and events in the workplace. This helps managers to coordinate programs to work as a collective whole for the overall goal or mission of the organization rather than for isolated departments. Define “open systems” • An open system is a system that regularly......

Words: 565 - Pages: 3

Open System

...HOW OPEN SYSTEM CONCEPT IS MORE HELPFUL TO THE ORGANIZATION "The organization is a coalition of groups and interests, each attempting to obtain something from the collectively by interacting with others, and each with its own preferences and objectives "(Pfeffer and Salancik, 1978 p. 36) this loose coupling can be useful in itself (Weick, 1976) by improving adaptability. Business organizations are open systems; an open system is one which must interact with its environment to survive. It both consumes resources and exports resources to the environment. It must continually change and adapt to the environment. Business organizations, to survive, must interact effectively with their external environments. The open system concept provides the flexibility necessary for organizations to effectively interact. Open system concept is very useful for occurrences of changes within the organization due to the following reasons; Emphasis effective Problem solving, To effectively solve problems Barrick gold mine and Tanzanite one must make sure they interact with external environment. Good example at North Mara Barrick gold mine tries to allow other contractor to engaged on provision of services example provision of food services are being given Sodex company. This means if there is any problem which concerns the food the one that will be responsible to solve it will be Sodex Company and not the Mine Company. This also will be applied on Tanzanite one where the area are being......

Words: 340 - Pages: 2

Ob Open Systems O

...Open Systems approach One of the most basic and ground concepts to the perspectives is the open system approach as it draws significant attention to the boundary of the organization and its context. Developing a design that effectively manages the exchanges – of raw materials, people, products,etc. – across boundaries is, in an open systems perspective, considered to be key to survival and prosperity. In the current world orginisations are perceived as consumers of resources and exporters of resources known as inputs and outputs. It is essential for orginisations to outlast and succeed in such a changing world and to do so it is a necessity to adapt and control in these environments. It is required to control internal activities through this, and to efficiently dispose off outputs produced by the resources (inputs) especially in regards to the changing nature of the environment we must interpret and act on. Within open systems it is common that certain departments and top managers overlook that they are part of this certain system in a way referred to as a “bubble,” where managers and departments segregate themselves within a self-referential culture. For example if an orginisation is not responsive to environmental changes or has a weak attention to new product prospects they would suffer deeply. The significance of an open systems have recently been emphasized due to the technological boom such as the e- business and internet allowing newer entrants into the......

Words: 259 - Pages: 2

Tatuagens e arte corporal | Next › | PERSONALISED TEXT PHOTO NAME MUG Christmas Birthday Fathers Mothers Valentines