Open Access - Menyuburkan Plagiarisme?

In: Social Issues

Submitted By anugraha
Words 2709
Pages 11
Open Access: Menyuburkan Plagiarisme?
Oleh: Aditya Nugraha/Liauw Toong Tjiek ( Kepala Perpustakaan Universitas Kristen Petra, Surabaya

Latar Belakang Perkembangan teknologi informasi dan komunikasi (TIK) atau yang lebih populer dikenal sebagai information and communication technology (ICT) telah membawa perubahan yang cukup mendasar dalam berbagai bidang kehidupan. Kemajuan di bidang komputer dan Internet secara khusus makin mempercepat terjadinya perubahan yang besar dalam cara manusia berkomunikasi, dan mencari serta bertukar informasi. Saat ini komunikasi global berlangsung dalam kecepatan dan volume yang tak pernah terbayangkan sebelumnya, bahkan mungkin lima atau sepuluh tahun sebelumnya. Informasi saat ini tersedia secara me limpah dan dapat diakses dengan mudah dan cepat melalui Internet, kapan saja dan dari mana saja. Seolah sudah tiada lagi batasan ruang dan waktu dalam berkomunikasi, mencari, dan bertukar informasi. Perubahan yang cepat ini membawa dampak yang luar biasa terhadap institusi pengelola informasi. Perpustakaan secara umum, baik di negara maju maupun berkembang, adalah salah satu entitas yang paling merasakan dampak ini. Perpustakaan harus menangkap peluang ini dengan memanfaatkan kemajuan TIK untuk meningkatkan produk dan layanan informasi bagi pengguna mereka. Negara- negara maju, dengan ekonomi dan sistem pendidikan yang jauh lebih mapan, telah menangkap peluang ini dan memanfaatkannya. Mereka telah memproduksi informasi digital dalam volume yang luar biasa besarnya. Sebaliknya masyarakat di negara-negara berkembang, khususnya Indonesia, cenderung hanya menjadi konsumen informasi. Sebagian besar masyarakat Indonesia sudah merasa puas menggunakan Internet untuk memenuhi kebutuhan informasi mereka. Hal ini berakibat pada terjadinya ‘digital divide,’ baik dalam artian akses dan kemampuan untuk memanfaatkan TIK (komputer dan…...

Similar Documents


...Netflix’s Generic Strategies Netflix is using a focused differentiation strategy. Netflix’s subscriber base consisted of three types of customers: those who liked the convenience of home delivery, bargain hunters who were enthused about being able to watch many movies for an economical monthly price, and movie buffs who wanted access to a very wide selection of films. SWOT Analysis Strength: * Netflix is the world’s largest subscription service for streaming movies. It had attracted 14 million subscribers as of April 2010. * Netflix has the fastest delivery time compare with any other online DVD rental companies. As of 2010, additional improvement in Netflix’s distribution and shipping network had result in one-business-day delivery capability for 98 percent of Netflix’s subscribers * Netflix has no late fees and no due dates which eliminated the hassle of getting DVDs back to local rental stores by the designated due date * Netflix had been highly rated in online retail customer satisfaction by Nielsen Online and ForeSee/FGI Research. Weaknesses: * Netflix accesses only to internet users * Subscriber cancellations are increasing from 3,113,000 in 2006 to 6,444,000 in 2009. (To grow its subscriber base, Netflix should attract new subscribers as well as avoided cancellation.) Opportunities: * As the result of growing demand of streaming......

Words: 1703 - Pages: 7

Open Innovation

...280 million BGN. The number of sold packages of drugs is 2% less but this decrease doesn’t mean that the Bulgarians used less medicaments. It is due to the fact that producers started putting more pills in one package and producing more combined products, which requires the intake of fewer pills. The medicines with prescription mark a 10% growth in comparison to 2009. This is owed to the easier access to drugs in the positive list and the increase of the rights of the GPs to prescribe drugs. The revenues from medicines without prescription increased by 4% in 2010. The sales of the so called original products grew by 7.8% (as packages) and by 15% (as revenues). The generic products marked a decrease of 4.5% in packages and an increase of 3.5% in revenues. At least 50% of the market growth is due to increased consumption of drugs for the respiratory system, antibiotics and immune stimulants. Supply Bulgaria’s pharmaceutical trade balance is largely in favor of imports, a situation that is reflective of the country’s historically minimal manufacturing base and improving access to modern innovative pharmaceuticals. This dynamic has shifted somewhat over the last five years, however, as the country’s pharmaceutical export profile improved dramatically, with EU accession playing a major factor. In 2004, export value was just 20.3% of import value, a situation which improved marginally to 23.8% in 2006. However, following EU accession, this figure rose to 41.3% in 2007......

Words: 7368 - Pages: 30

Open Source

...What Is Open Source? Technically, “open source” means software that issupplied with the original code in which it was written allowing others to view, modify, adapt, and improve this code. This can include software that cannot be redistributed without explicit permission (and often a payment) to the software owner. Most people now define “open source” more narrowly to as software with the following further characteristics: • It is protected by copyright, but not patents. • It has a “copy-left” license (GNU license or similar), which states that it can be redistributed for no charge, but the source code and modifications must be licensed out under the same terms that it was licensed in. Sample licenses are available at Please note, that it is acceptable to sell commercial software in a bundle with this “open source” software. Open source software is not the same as “shareware” or “freeware” which often does not come with source code and has zero cost as its defining characteristic. Open source software, may or may not be zero cost. The benefit of open source software is that when people are allowed to read, distribute, and modify the source code for a piece of software, the software evolves and gets better. Open Source in Brief In practice, a typical open-source project uses a web or other internet site as the repository for the source code, documentation, discussions, design documents, bug and issue lists, and other artifacts......

Words: 2667 - Pages: 11

Open Source

...Open Source: Salvation or Suicide? OPEN SOURCE DEFINITION: Open source doesn't just mean access to the source code. The distribution terms of open-source software must comply with the following criteria: 1. Free Redistribution The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources. The license shall not require a royalty or other fee for such sale. 2. Source Code The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form. Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction cost preferably, downloading via the Internet without charge. The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program. Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed. Intermediate forms such as the output of a preprocessor or translator are not allowed. 3. Derived Works The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software. 4. Integrity of The Author's Source Code The license may restrict source-code from being distributed in modified form only if the license allows the distribution of "patch files" with the source code for the purpose of modifying the program at...

Words: 1780 - Pages: 8

Open Government

...O P EN G OV ER N M EN T A Progress Report to the American People DECEM BER 2 0 09 A Progress Report to the American People OPEN GOVERNMENT “My Administration is committed to creating an unprecedented level of openness in government. We will work together to ensure the public trust and establish a system of transparency, public participation, and collaboration. Openness will strengthen our democracy and promote efficiency and effectiveness in government.” —President Barack Obama, January 21, 2009 TRANSPARENCY. PARTICIPATION. COLLABORATION. Table of Contents Let the Sun Shine In : Welcoming a New Era of Open Government Creating an Open Government in Practice The Open Government Directive: Hardwiring Accountability Open Government: Committed to Changing How Things Work Appendices Appendix 1: The Open Government Initiative: The Unprecedented Consultation Process that Shaped the Open Government Directive Appendix 2: Cabinet Department Open Government Projects in Service of National Priorities Appendix 3: Select Transparency Milestones Appendix 4: Select Participation Milestones Appendix 5: Select Collaboration Milestones 1 2 8 9 12 12 13 18 19 21 Let the Sun Shine In : Welcoming a New Era of Open Government For too long, the American people have experienced a culture of secrecy in Washington, where information is locked up, taxpayer dollars disappear without a trace, and lobbyists wield undue influence For Americans, business as usual in......

Words: 9639 - Pages: 39

Final Project- to Open or Not to Open That Is the Question

...Problem #1: To Open or Not to Open – That is the Question! While vacationing in Thailand, Steve and Linda fell in love with Thai food. Their hometown does not have a Thai restaurant, so Steve and Linda planned to open one. Linda is a chef and Steve would quit his job to run the “business” side of the restaurant. Steve found an empty restaurant for lease with seven tables that would seat four each. The restaurant would serve dinner only (no lunch) Tuesday – Saturday, and Linda is planning on having two seatings per evening. They will close two weeks a year for vacation. The Thai loving couple has come up with the following estimates: Average Revenue, including beverages and dessert $ 45 per meal Average cost of food $ 15 per meal Chef’s (Linda) and dishwasher’s salaries $ 61,200 per year Rent for building and equipment $ 4,000 per month Cleaning costs $ 800 per month Replacement of dishes, glasses, etc. $ 300 per month Utilities, advertising, telephone $ 2,300 per month Requirements: 1) Compute the annual breakeven number of meals and Sales Revenue for the restaurant: Total Expense per year = 61,200+12*(4000+800+300+2300) = $150,000 Contribution margin per meal = 45-15 = $30.00 Breakeven number of meals = $150,000/30 = $5,000.00 Contribution margin ratio= $30/$45 = 0.67 Breakeven number of sales = $150,000/.67 = $223,880.60 2) Compute the number of meals needed to earn......

Words: 1160 - Pages: 5

Open Letter .

...OPEN LETTER TO HIS EXCELLENCY THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF SIERRA LEONE VOLUME XX FROM THE UINITED STATES Dear Mr. President: It has been a year since I started communicating with you through this medium and ironically Volume XX, the first year anniversary production, is being sent to you from the United States of America, at a time when our beloved Nation is in all aspects submerged and immersed in Ebola. I intend to objectively provide hope to the hopeless, in the current desperate system in which the Nation entrusted its health and safety to a government which has proved to be unworthy of the Nation’s trust. Just as when during the bloody senseless civil war, I was stationed in the United States and together with Sulaiman Tarawalie contributed with a political commentary, to the fight against the rebels, in giving hope to the hopeless, through a programmme,” Africa My Africa”, broadcast on Radio Democracy. At the end of the programme I signed off as the Voice of the Voiceless, a name of which I am very proud and more so since it has now been adopted by many others. I will bring the latest information on how it is being done in the United States and the American effort being made to help us in West Africa. For instance 3,000 American troops have been ordered into the fight in West Africa by President Obama, most of them medical professionals, not to provide security, but to be more involved in the medical intricacies of the fight. They are fully embedded in......

Words: 3481 - Pages: 14

Open Mind, Open Life

...What does it mean to be open-minded? What is considered being open-minded? Well to make it short being open-minded is witnessing or being a part of something that is outside of your comfort zone, it’s basically breaking the boundaries that you've set up yourself. Everyone has their own perspective, what they believe is right and wrong, and how they act upon themselves and others but hardly do they ever question themselves. Question whether they are happy with their life, if they happy with their values and beliefs, and if they are happy with how they view the world. Becoming an open-minded person is a bit more difficult than you think and tough at times because as a toddler we are raised upon beliefs and values of our household and family so we tend to surround ourselves with people who share the same values and beliefs. The challenge of becoming open-minded is the fact that we faced with ideas that differ from our own, and since we have strong views on specific topics it’s hard for someone to stray from those opinions. I strongly agree that believing in your own opinions is a great thing and doesn't mean you have a closed mind but I've noticed that opening the door to your mind and letting new ideas and beliefs in has it benefits. During my seventeen years of living I've noticed seven benefits to becoming open minded which has carved the person that I am today. Number One is letting go of control. By letting go of control of your thoughts you allow yourself to experience......

Words: 1039 - Pages: 5

Open Access Movement

...Mayuri Agarwal Response Essay: “Guerilla Open Access Manifesto” Aaron Swartz Word Count: 820 A few days ago, Pizza hut had an unlimited pizza offer for a day where you would get free pizzas after paying for one. We went there and ordered pizzas. We observed that the pizzas, which were coming for free, were not of the usual quality. They had very less toppings and were not good properly. That is when people started saying that anything, which Pizza Hut offers for free, is not of a good quality. I find that to be applicable on myself. What if Pizza hut becomes the Internet? Aaron Swartz’s article “Guerilla Open Access Manifesto”, states that information of any kind should be public and free of cost. Aaron stated in his article that all information must be shared and it is the responsibility of the people who have access to these resources to share it with the others and make it public and “free”. What about the quality of this information? Will everyone like to each such a pizza? My arguments further will explain why most people would not want to eat such a pizza. In response to what Aaron has stated, two things come to my mind. First, is sharing information with respect to the Open Access movement actually free? Second, how does one differentiate between the authenticity of the article and decide which one is spam and which is not? While the Open Access promoters constantly emphasize on the fact that information will be free for public use, they do...

Words: 866 - Pages: 4

Access Training

...What is Access? Simple databases store information in only one table. These simple databases are often called flat file databases, or just flat databases. More complex database programs, such as Access, store information in multiple related tables, thereby creating what are referred to as relational databases. If the information in a relational database is organized correctly, you can treat these multiple tables as a single storage area and pull information electronically from different tables in whatever order meets your needs. Tables are one of the types of database objects you work with in Access. Other types include forms, queries and reports. Of these object types, only tables are used to store information. The others are used to enter, manage, manipulate, analyze, retrieve, or display the information stored in tables—in other words, to make the information as accessible and therefore as useful as possible. Table – data storage, the actual location of data Forms – used to enter, to change or to delete data Queries Reports Starting Microsoft Access If you are using an IT Services machine, login as usual by entering your username and password. Then, to start up the program: 1. Open the Windows Start button and choose All Programs 2. Select Microsoft Office 2013 then Access 2013 Tip: If you right click on the Microsoft Access entry in the menu and choose Send To then Desktop (create shortcut) you’ll have an icon on the Desktop for future easy access. You......

Words: 1697 - Pages: 7


...can hurt a team very badly. Team members should always know their roles, and also follow through. That’s in a perfect world but we don’t live in one. It very important that each team member contacts one other if there is something going on with them that might have an impact on the group. Having open communication is very important, as member of a team I want my team member to be able to approach me and for to be able to approach them as well. Team should communicate at least once a week whether it is by phone, email, in person, or in these times in our live text message. This way if their anything on with your team they can let you know immediately. This way thing can be discuad openly, there could be so issues going on with the group are personal that is causing their performance to fail. Anytime a team is involved whether it be a team of family member, or a team of coworker each member would know there role. The leader of team should make sure each member know their role and that they follow through. As a good team member you should make every scheduled meeting, conference call, and follow through with all duties that are assigned to you. It is also very importation to keep an open mind. When each member knows there role and what’s expected , makes thing run a lots smoother , then member just guessing and hoping thing are right. A leader of a team should do just that lead. The leader of the team should schedule meeting in advance, should be professional at all time,......

Words: 843 - Pages: 4

Open Access

...accountable, this assumes that all members of that company actually knows what's going on and have chosen to either ignore or tolerate it. Therefore if this principal is taken to the extreme the post room worker is as much to blame as the CEO. However, despite these pros and cons there are solutions that policy makers should implement as a solution to the collective action problem Government regulation: A government can declare it against the law to act selfishly and require individuals to cooperate, For example the government introducing speed limits in the public roads anyone found to be going against this will be charged, this will force people to act accordingly. Privatisation: If someone owns a resource, then he or she can restrict access to it. Furthermore, it will be in his or her interest to prevent the resource from collapsing. The government must privatise the ownership of grazing lands so that grazing within certain areas is controlled so as to ensure sustainable and efficient use of resources. REFERENCE 1. Bandiera,O. , Barankay, I., Imran, R. (May 2009): Social Incentives in the Workplace. Department of Economics, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London. 2. Olson, Mancur (1971). The Logic of Collective Action- Public Goods and the Theory of Groups, USA. Harvard Economic Studies. 3. Olson, M. (1965), The Logic of Collective Action, Harvard, Cambridge, MA. 4. WB (2008), Fighting Corruption Through Collective Action, A Guide......

Words: 846 - Pages: 4


...PPE: safety shoes, safety boots, leggings, Spat. [pic] Future Scope of Occupational Safety Occupational health and safety has come a long way from its beginnings in the heavy industry sector. It now has an impact on every worker, in every work place, and those charged with managing health and safety are having more and more tasks added to their portfolio. The most significant responsibility is environmental protection. The skills required to manage occupational health and safety are compatible with environmental protection, which is why these responsibilities are so often bolted onto the workplace health and safety professional. Future Risks Nanotechnology is another example of a new technology with few studies available that access the risks to human health. A Swiss survey of one hundred thirty eight companies using or producing nanoparticulate matter in 2006, resulted in forty completed questionnaires. Sixty five per cent of respondent companies stated they did not have a formal risk assessment process for dealing with nanoparticulate matter [11] Nanotechnology in the near future presents unique challenges for occupational health and safety professionals to anticipate and control, this will only become more difficult as nanostructures become more complex. The size of the particles renders most containment and personal protective equipment ineffective. The toxicology values for macro sized industrial substances are rendered inaccurate due to the unique nature......

Words: 2432 - Pages: 10

Individual Transferable Quota Management for Open Access Fisheries

...Critically assess ‘Individual Transferable Quotas’ as a way of managing an Open Access Fishery Open Access Fisheries have long been susceptible to irrational over-exploitation by fishermen. The nature of such an open and accessible resource coupled with the issue of overfishing has resulted in a growing area of research and academia in sustainable management strategies. Economists became aware of the common property problems of the fishery through H. Scott Gordon in 1954 and have been concerned with effective measures of management ever since1. The economist, Parzival Copes 1986, pin points the problem that fisheries are absent of individual property rights. This, he argued, produces no incentive for fishermen to ‘husband the resource’ and invariably leads to excessive exploitation1. It is this exploitation that is a concern for governments worldwide as populations rise and the demand for such resources increase. This essay will look at one way of managing an Open Access Fishery, a strategy of Individual Transferable Quotas (ITQ), and will assess the effectiveness of such an approach. An early output-limitation management strategy has been to impose a total allowable catch (TAC) in fisheries to try and prevent exploitation and conserve fish stocks. These limits on the amount that fishermen can harvest each season are aimed at allowing conservation objectives to be met, but in reality they resulted in a racing mentality, a ‘race for fish,’ as soon as the fishing season......

Words: 2119 - Pages: 9


...Introduction to Microsoft Access 2003 Zhi Liu School of Information Fall/2006 Introduction and Objectives Microsoft Access 2003 is a powerful, yet easy to learn, relational database application for Microsoft Windows. This tutorial is designed for users who are new or only have little experience using Access 2003. It introduces fundamental database concepts and operations and illustrates how they are performed in Microsoft Access 2003. This tutorial does not cover all of the features and functions of Microsoft Access 2003; emphasis will be on basic and frequently-used features, such as the creation of tables and queries, or importing spreadsheet into Access. Please be aware that Microsoft Access is only available for Windows users; Mac users may want to seek out a FileMaker Pro Tutorial. Objectives By using this tutorial, you will learn to perform the following operations in Access 2003: • • • • • • Launch Access and identify the parts of the screen. Define fields and field properties constructing table structures. Enter and edit records in a table. Find, sort data. Design custom queries to display data. Import and export data between Excel and Access. Definitions These words are used often in Access so you will want to become familiar with them before using the program and this tutorial. Relational Database: in relational databases such as Access, data is stored in tables made up of one or more fields (Access calls a column a field). The data stored in each 1 ...

Words: 3238 - Pages: 13

Anitore! XX: Hitotsu Yane no Shita de English Subbed | Black Lightning | January 2017 (39)