Musculr Dystrophy

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Submitted By Perrez
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Anatomy and Physiology 2, SCI 136
Research project # 40904000

Muscular Dystrophy
Muscular dystrophy (MD) refers to a group of more than 30 genetic diseases that cause progressive weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles used during voluntary movement. The word dystrophy is derived from the Greek dys, which means "difficult" or "faulty," and troph, or "nourish." These disorders vary in age of onset, severity, and pattern of affected muscles. All forms of MD grow worse as muscles progressively degenerate and weaken. Many patients eventually lose the ability to walk (“National Institute,” 2011). Some types of MD also affect the heart, gastrointestinal system, endocrine glands, spine, eyes, brain, and other organs. Respiratory and cardiac diseases may occur, and some patients may develop a swallowing disorder. MD is not contagious and cannot be brought on by injury or activity (“National Institute,” 2011).
Method(s) of diagnosis Muscular dystrophies are diagnosed through both the patient’s medical history and a complete family history to determine if the muscle disease is secondary to a disease affecting other tissues or organs or is an inherited condition. It is also important to rule out any muscle weakness resulting from prior surgery, exposure to toxins, current medications that may affect the patient's functional status, and any acquired muscle diseases. Thorough clinical and neurological exams can rule out disorders of the central and/or peripheral nervous systems, identify any patterns of muscle weakness and atrophy, test reflex responses and coordination, and look for contractions. Various laboratory tests may be used to confirm the diagnosis of MD (“National Institute,” 2011).
Blood and urine tests can detect defective genes and help identify specific neuromuscular disorders. For example: * The level of serum…...

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Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

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...Muscular I. Introduction of the disease A. Muscular dystrophy B. Muscular dystrophy-is a group of muscle diseases that weaken the musculoskeletal and hamper C. I pick this disease because it sounded interesting II. Causes A. How can a human being contract (get) this disease? 1. the most common form of muscular dystrophy in children is Duchene muscular dystrophy (DMD). Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is also relatively common. They are similar and are caused by mutations in the same gene, but BMD is less severe than DMD. 2. You can be born with this disorder 3. And it’s a genetic disorder B. Is this disease contagious? no III. Symptoms A. Poor balancing B. Frequent falls C. Limited range movements D. Inability to walk IV. Treatment A. Corticosteroids, such as prednisone, may help improve muscle strength and delay the progression of certain types of muscular dystrophy. But prolonged use of these types of drugs can weaken bones and increase fracture risk. B. Several different types of therapy and assistive devices can improve quality and sometimes length of life in people who have muscular dystrophy. C. Surgical remedies are an option for several of the problems common to muscular dystrophy, such as: Contractures. Tendon surgery can loosen joints drawn inward by contractures. Scoliosis. Surgery may also be needed to correct a sideways curvature of the spine that can make breathing more difficult. C. V. Cures-doesn’t have any ......

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Adult Health Concept they age. This is due to loss of muscle strength and mass characterized by less mobile and stiffer muscles. The gait changes can also affect a person’s balance. Mobility is crucial to maintenance of independent living among seniors. The moment mobility is affected, a person’s activities of daily living is affected too. Risk factors Physical impairment may be as result of very many factors. The physical disability that one experiences may either be congenital, or due to fractures. Other causes may include muscle dystrophy, cerebral palsy, amputation, multiple sclerosis, pulmonary disease, and heart diseases among others. The most attributable risk factor to the old patients is mainly characterized by muscle dystrophy. These are groups of genetic diseases that are characterized by progressive weaknesses and the degeneration of a person’s skeletal or voluntary muscle used to control movements. Adult population is mostly associated with myotonic muscular dystrophy. Persons with physical impairment may experience deficits in motor and fine motor functioning, locomotor and non-locomotor functioning. There is also a deficit in cognitive, adaptive and social behavior skills and impairment of language, vision, hearing or other sensory areas. Due to muscle stiffness and spasticity, the patients may need help with learning and daily activities. They are usually characterized by a limited range of motion and reluctance to attempt movement. The person may experience pain,......

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Myopathy associated with progressive weakness, atrophy (wasting), inflammation, muscle fiber metabolism dysfunction, muscle spasm, or rigidity. When examining a patient of myopathy, it is also very important to consider a person’s medical history, as well as the medical history of the individual’s family, and see if there’s muscular dystrophy or other kinds of myopathy present. Medications an individual is taking and occupational history are also important factors to consider. Inherited Myopathy Inherited myopathies are caused by a genetic defect. These include disorders such as muscular dystrophy. The most common muscular dystrophies, Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy, result from a genetic defect on the X chromosome, so muscular dystrophy typically affects boys. Certain genes are involved in making proteins that protect muscle fibers from damage. Muscular dystrophy occurs when one of these genes is defective. There are more than 30 kinds of muscular dystrophy, and progressive weakness and degeneration of the skeletal muscles that control movement are some of the qualities that are associated with muscular dystrophy. Other effects of muscular dystrophy include but are not limited to: walking difficulty, frequent falls, calf pain, scoliosis, drooping eyelids, and inability to walk. Endocrine Myopathy Endocrine myopathies are caused by the over or underproduction of hormones. These conditions can develop in children and adults. Steroid myopathy is the most......

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...a disability, it’s a condition making the argument against the city that she is a handicap invalid. Technically she’s not a handicap- If you can no longer work due to scoliosis, you may be eligible to receive Social Security Disability benefits which she did not apply for at the time. Scoliosis is a lateral (toward the side) curvature in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. When viewed from the side, the spine should show a mild roundness in the upper back and shows a degree of swayback (inward curvature) in the lower back. Types of Scoliosis – conditions 1. Neuromuscular scoliosis. A result of abnormal muscles or nerves. Frequently seen in people with other disorders, including other birth defects such as muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy, Spina bifida or Marfan syndrome (an inherited connective tissue disease) those with various conditions that are accompanied by it, result in, paralysis. : In this type of scoliosis, there is a problem when the bones of the spine are formed. Either the bones of the spine fail to form completely or they fail to separate from each other during fetal development. People with these conditions often develop a long C-shaped curve and have weak muscles that are unable to hold them up straight. If the curve is present at birth, it is called congenital. (Congenital scoliosis caused by a bone abnormality present at birth .This type of scoliosis is often much more severe and needs more aggressive treatment than other forms of......

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