Monetary Union

In: Business and Management

Submitted By fykjata
Words 368
Pages 2
Европейският паричен съюз или с други думи „Еврозоната“, представлява група от страни-членки на Европейския съюз, които са приели еврото за своя официална валута. Идеята за единна валута в рамките на европейската интеграционна общност датират от 70-те години на 20 век като част от плана Вернер, но стават реалност като съставна част от плана Делор – план за изграждане на Икономически и валутен съюз и Единен вътрешен пазар. На 1 Януари 1999 год. обменният курс на валутите на 11 от 15-те членки на Европейския съюз бива фиксиран към еврото, като от тази дата всички банкови операции се осъществяват в тази валута. През 2001 год. Гърция също се присъединява към Еврозоната и приема за официална валута еврото. На 1 Януари 2002 год. в обръщение влизат първите евро монети и банкноти, което слага край на съществуването на националните валути на страните-членки на Европейския паричен съюз.
Към 2013 година Еврозоната се състои от 17 държави-членки на Европейския съюз (Монако, Сан Марино и Ватикана), представлявани от финансовите си министри, както и президентът на ЕЦБ и вицепрезидентът на Комисията по икономическите и паричните въпроси. Понастоящем председател на Еврогрупата е Йерун Дейселблум.
Предимства на функционирането на единна валута
1. Единната валута премахва необходимостта от извършване на обмяна между валутите на страните-членки на Еврозоната. По този начин се премахват и разходите за арбитраж – таксите, комисионните и маржовете между курс купува и курс продава или с други думи реализиране на разходни икономии. В допълнение, горепосоченото обстоятелство изравнява условията за конкуренция на единния вътрешен пазар.
2. Появата на еврото елиминира валутния риск – рискът, който може да възникне поради колебанията на курсовете на валутите. Логично, еврото премахва и разходите за застраховка от колебания на валутните курсове.
3. Еврото осигурява ново равнище на…...

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