Mesopotamian Civilization

In: Historical Events

Submitted By vlynn
Words 1351
Pages 6
Mesopotamian Civilization
Wedged between the Tigris and Euphrates River, the first civilization and founder of the many methods and ideas we hold today, now lay in ruins under the desert sands of present day Iraq. Mesopotamia is home to the invention of writing, our twelve month lunar based calendar, the wheel, the division of minutes to seconds, and the opening of the first routes to import and export trade. The Sumerians of Mesopotamia were enveloped by environmental conditions that constantly tested their skills and intellect for survival. This need for survival served as the basis that called forth the invention of methods and ideas that overtime increased and spiraled into the creation of a higher human society.
Nature threatened the Sumerians with the very essentials needed to help sustain life. They were shadowed by the constant challenge of floods, droughts, winds, and heat. Faced with these hardships, they took the sources that made them vulnerable and invented ingenious methods and strategies to overcome their complex situation. The construction of canals, reservoirs, dams, and the wheel made it possible to control and deviate the rivers into selected areas. In result, such things as wheat and millet became abundant and a stable food supply was soon possible. Prosperity increased and groups began to colonize along the rivers and the population grew, gradually expanding their habitable land.
Mesopotamia is a Greek word meaning 'between the rivers'. The rivers are the Tigris and Euphrates which flow through modern day Iraq. Thousands of years ago, the fertile low lands in the river basins of Euphrates and Tigris was the home land of a rich and complex society. South of modern day Bagdad, the vast plains of the rivers were called the land of Sumer and Akkad in the third millennium. Sumer is the most southern part, while the land of Akkad is the area…...

Similar Documents

Indus Civilization

...INDUS CIVILIZATION Indus civilization, also called Indus valley civilization or Harappa civilization, the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent. It was first identified in 1921 at Harappa in the Punjab region and then in 1922 at Mohenjo-Daro (Mohenjo-Daro), near the Indus River in the Sindh (Sind) region, now both in Pakistan. Subsequently, vestiges of the civilization were found as far apart as Sutkagen Dor, near the shore of the Arabian Sea 300 miles (480 km) west of Karachi, also in Pakistan, and Rupnagar, in India, at the foot of the Shimla Hills 1,000 miles (1,600 km) to the northeast. Later exploration established its existence southward down the west coast of India as far as the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay), 500 miles (800 km) southeast of Karachi, and as far east as the Yamuna (Jumna) River basin, 30 miles (50 km) north of Delhi. It is thus decidedly the most extensive of the world’s three earliest civilizations; the other two are those of Mesopotamia and Egypt, both of which began somewhat before it. The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) located in the western region of South Asia, and spread over what is now Pakistan, northwest India, and eastern Afghanistan. Flourishing in the Indus River basin, the civilization extended east into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the upper reaches Ganges-Yamuna Doab, it extended west to the Makran coast of Baluchistan and north to......

Words: 1401 - Pages: 6

Civilization

...BUkleja Date 2013-01-03 Civilization Today we look at the future and wonder? Have you ever wondered about the past? We will discuss were we came from in forms of region, religion, as well as artistic expression. If you grew up in North America with in the last thirty years there are things that you would automatically know, such as baseball, hotdogs, rock stars, J.F.K. and Martin Luther King. Why would you know these things? Well first Hot dogs no matter where you came from in the country you had a hotdog either at a family barbeque, quick meal on the go or a sporting event. The idea of such things like sporting events like Baseball and Football pro and college alike, in some areas these can be as inspirational as religion. It may seem like a cliché as the underdog stories like “Rudy”, League of their own or Major League. What do all these things have in common? They each talk of the man or men even women doing what might seem as impossible at the time but what might be need at that time. They each bring hope and inspiration to their characters. Sporting events aren’t the only source of modern day inspiration every now and then we come across great men and women that will inspire or motivate a generation some good and some bad. Let’s us look back at George Washington, Harriet Tubman, Hitler, Martin Luther King and Obama. Each has their place in history President Washington some say the greatest president of all time, Harriet Tubman the bravest women of all time...

Words: 977 - Pages: 4

Civilization

...* Civilization Essay * Civilization is the product of the inner human consciousness that projects itself collectively within society. These projections are what we interact with everyday within our own society. These projections are based on the natural interpretation of their respective civilization or culture and the basic walks of life that consume it. For example the existence of laws, arts, religion, and government are the meat and potatoes of civilization without these essential elements humans would be reduced animals that eat to live and breed without leaving a mark or legacy of his own. The fact that humans even want to leave legacy is interweaved into building blocks of civilization. As defined by dictionary.com civilization is an advanced state of human society, in which a high level of culture, science, industry, and government has been reached. (Dictonary.com) Are humans defined by their civilizations acceptance of their cultural ideologies? How do these ideologies play out in society and what role do these ideologies play in civilization? * The answer is the humanities rule our existence. Humanities because it is the outward expression of our selves our ideas and culture. Humanities capture the human spirit, soul, and inner thoughts and express them in three different ways through visual art, performing art, and literary art. These arts impress upon our society to shape our ideas of the world around us, and how we fit into the grand scheme of......

Words: 489 - Pages: 2

Civilization

...The stage of human social development and organization that is considered most advanced. Civilization is a term used in many different ways. It can be defined as; people who eat the same kind of foods, People who live together, people who speak the same language, and so on. Yet each way that it is defined relates towards the same topic; Humans and their existence on the planet. Civilization is known greatly as a group of humans or animals that live generally together and practice the same habits. Civilization, according to some historians, first came into play in the year 3000 BCE. These historians look at civilization as people who have the same dietary needs and habits, which practice these habits regularly in order to survive. A couple of years before 3000 BCE, the world went through what historians call the Agricultural revolution. They feel that because of this revolution, groups of people started to come together to practice their farming ways. Because of all the new food supplies that came about through the agricultural revolution, the population started to grow into little villages, which eventually turned into city states. This caused people to look further beyond their little villages in search of more land to hold their growing populations. This caused groups of people to break off and form their own little towns or civilizations. After a while the people learned that by being in different places their farming encountered different weather and growing conditions.......

Words: 262 - Pages: 2

Egyptian and Mesopotamian Culture

...Considering the geographic closeness of the two ancient civilizations, Mesopotamia occupying mainly modern day Iraq, centered around the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and Egypt which is still located in the region recognized as modern Egypt, centralized around the Nile River, and the overlapping time frame both of these societies occupied, it is not unexpected that Mesopotamia and Egypt would possess similar ideologies. Despite the fact that the political structure of these civilizations differed between Mesopotamia’s unstable collection of city-states and Egypt’s unified monarchy, both societies were comprised a polytheistic philosophy where the Gods reflected a larger, universal system. Furthermore, both ancient civilizations relied on the flooding of their adjacent rivers for survival and these floods manifested within their religious ideologies. Although, the annual flooding of the Nile gave the Egyptians a sense of comfort and satiability surrounding death and was the direct rational of the Egyptians belief that rebirth followed death, the inconsistent flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates left the Mesopotamian people uncertain of the continuity of lives, evident in their harsh God’s and lack of interpretation of what the after-life consists of. Nevertheless, the similarities between the two culture’s religious beliefs are far too comparable to be discounted. Being polytheistic in nature, the religious beliefs of the Mesopotamians and Egyptians consisted of a chief or......

Words: 897 - Pages: 4

Harrapan Civilization

...Harappan Civilization (also known as Indus Valley Civilization) Submitted By: Sharad Thakran 1919 Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2. Discovery and history of excavation 3. Chronology 4. Geography 5. Early Harappan 6. Mature Harappan a. Cities b. Authority and governance c. Technology d. Arts and crafts e. Trade and transportation f. Subsistence g. Writing system h. Religion 7. Collapse and Late Harappan 8. Legacy 9. Historical context and linguistic affiliation Introduction The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India (see map). Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and of the three the most widespread. It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia, and the Ghaggar-Hakra River, which once coursed through northwest India and eastern Pakistan. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). The Indus cities are noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of......

Words: 4336 - Pages: 18

Civilization

...1 Civilization What is meant by the term “Civilization” Kenneth Dutton EG 362 Humanities 2 Civilization What is meant by the term “Civilization” and how we characterize it? What role do the humanities play in this definition? The definition of civilization is an advance state of human society that shows high levels of culture, science, industry and the government have been reached. Specifically the state of cultural development at which writing and the keeping of written records is attained. Humanities by definition is the documentation of human being through stories, paintings, religion and beliefs. The stories around the campfire, family heirlooms that come with a story, the journaling of our experiences and lives all become a form of humanities that is passed on to the next civilization after it. Humanities is shown through art and paintings, but does not stop there. The paintings not only tell a story in picture, but document the evolvement in skill of art with techniques and tools. The documentation of beliefs allowing for the development of religion organized societies, giving order or sense of normalcy in the burial of bodies and or praying to a god. In religion art made its presence through sculptures used in religious content. These definitions of humanities were...

Words: 364 - Pages: 2

Civilization

...Civilization – A Definition What do ancient Mesopotamian cuneiform writing tablets, Egyptian pyramids of Giza, inscribed oracle bones from ancient Chinese divine rituals, and automobiles have in common? Each of these objects represents a bi-product of an ancient or modern civilization. However, many anthropologists, historians, theorists and sociologists alike disagree with regard to how the term civilization should be defined. According to sociologist Robert Park, “Civilization […] is the result of man’s effort to use the resources of his environment in order to change nature and, where possible, make it less raw, more comfortable and less difficult to endure” (Park, 132). He reasons that civilization should be measured by man’s degree of conquest over nature (133). Historian and author Felipe Fernández-Armesto describes civilization as both a “process of collective self-differentiation from a world characterized […] as barbaric or savage or primitive” and a stage reached when a particular society reaches its “climax” (Fernández-Armesto, 13). While peace activist Scott Nearing believed civilization to be the “most comprehensive, extensive and inclusive life pattern achieved by terrestrial humanity,” the philosopher and revolutionary Karl Marx believed that the beginning of civilization symbolized the beginning of oppression (Nearing, 54). In the simplest sense, the Oxford English Dictionary defines the verb “to civilize” as “to bring out of a state of barbarism, to......

Words: 1508 - Pages: 7

The Civilizations and Cultures of Mesopotamia and Egypt

...The Civilizations and Cultures of Mesopotamia and Egypt Mesopotamia has been called the first civilization, forming around 2500 BC, but there was also another civilization being formed around the same time; the Egyptian civilization was formed by 3000 BC along the Nile River. Both civilizations were strongly influenced by geography, natural resources, and social class. The development of two great early civilizations were guided by the geography, natural resources, and social classes but these broad categories branched off in different directions for each civilization. Geography had a large impact on the successful development of these two civilizations. Both largely depended on nearby rivers for their success and were called the river civilizations. Mesopotamia translates to “land between rivers” which is exactly what it was. It was located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. These rivers provided for the Sumerians to develop an extensive irrigation system. They were also able to use the flooding of the rivers to their benefit, and all of these developments lead to them having things to trade which they also used the rivers to do. Goods were able to move from place to place along the river along with ideas. Similarly, the Egyptian civilization was strongly dependent on their river, the Nile, and they would have not made nearly as much advancement without it. When the Nile flooded it helped farming and agriculture by providing silt, helping the soil. Their......

Words: 531 - Pages: 3

Civilization

...Civilization Civilization is a hard word to explain, in one word or in a sentence, because it depends on how the society is built and there are many different aspects. Civilization comes from the word civis, which comes from Latin, and means citizen of a city. When you take a look in the mirror, have you ever thought about that you belong to a certain identical group and that your language or culture even could be some of your personality behaviors are a sign of the particular civilization? What is civilization? And how is Civilization defined? According to the dictionary “Civilization” means a society, its culture and way of living life. The definition of civilization refers to a society or it can be group of people or the process of achieving a higher state of social development. When we look at R.Cobb´s drawing about civilization, we see these two mason where some people are blocked inside them both, those peoples are exactly the same but they have created too parts of different civilization and one of the group consider the other group to be “mentally ill” and reverse. A example could be the Israeli-Palestinian conflict that has been going on for 65 years. The new born state took its place back in May 1948. They got mandates for Britain, to occupate the county of the Palestinians. They performed ethnic cleansing, which resulted in millions of refugees of Palestinians in Syria, Jordan and Lebanon. Then they came up with the apartheid politics, which resulted in a wall...

Words: 320 - Pages: 2

Civilization

...Suzette Wright World Civilization II Jill Walsh July 14, 2013 The role of women in today’s society has changed significantly from the modern age. There will always be different traits of each gender that can’t be duplicated by the opposite gender. Many families have tried to make the responsibility roles more equal amongst the adult male and female in the house hold. In today’s society the women is still treated un equal, less human rights than a man and the American culture still tends to believe that a women can’t do a job that a man can. In the modern age, the women were expected to raise the children, keep the house cleaned and have dinner ready when the man gets home at the end of the day. Families were not able to pay for the expense of child care so the mother stayed home with the children. Many of the children were also home taught because school was too expensive or too far for the family to travel to. The man in the house hold tried to do some hunting and they grew their own crops to cut down on the cost of food. Times started to change and families could barely get by so it became worthwhile for the female to try and find a way to help out the family financial as well. When it was time for the women to enter the work field, it was difficult for them at first. Employers had a lot of doubt in the female’s work ability and the quality of the job they were capable of. In the eye of an employer, men are seen to be a strong......

Words: 2208 - Pages: 9

The Contributions of River Valley Civilizations

...The Contributions of River Valley Civilizations Document-Based Question By: Krupa Patel The ancient River Valley Civilizations of Egypt, China, and Mesopotamia all made key contributions to future societies. Two contributions made by the Mesopotamian civilization, are introducing a complete set of laws and creating the world’s first written language. In Document 1, it states how Sumerians created cuneiform script over 5000 years ago. They used this writing system to keep track of business deals far away, to pass on new ideas to each generation, and to keep records. Cuneiform is what initially started languages all over the world; it was a form of communication that evolved differently in each society. Future civilizations would establish their own languages, gradually making its way to the modern century. In addition, the Mesopotamian civilization developed Hammurabi’s Code, the most complete set of laws that has survived. Document 2 supports this reasoning, by stating that these set of rules were important because they helped govern a civilization while trying to protect people even if they had little political power. From this, future civilizations would begin to make their own laws to have a more organized society. The Code of Hammurabi, however, also brought forth the idea of class. For instance, punishments were based on the class of the lawbreaker and the victim of the crime. The Mesopotamian civilization contributed two major things that even impact the world......

Words: 636 - Pages: 3

African Civilizations

...The idea that Africans have contributed little to world civilization is one which many in the West have for a long time assumed and taken for granted. Thanks in part to depictions of Africa which rarely extend past civil wars, famine and the primitive; information about Africa’s past advances and accomplishments have continued to remain obscure and little known. Since first contact between Europe and Africa the history of Africa has been fundamentally dominated by the way Europeans have portrayed themselves in relationship to that continent. So that most of what we read and see about Africa tends to say -- either directly or indirectly -- more about the history of European colonialism and its biases toward Africa than it does about the real Africa and its people (see Ahmad, 1987). The majority of people today of all backgrounds, including those of African ancestry, tend to know little about Africa and its history outside of the transatlantic slave trade and perhaps colonialism. While even in these instances knowledge about these events can be at times, limited. The African continent is too often conceived of as one with no legitimate history before contact with Europeans. Formal anthropological research is now showing that this notion could not be further from the truth. In the bible Ham's sons are believed to have fathered the peoples of Africa. Of Ham's four sons, Canaan, fathered the Canaanites, while Mizraim fathered the Egyptians, Cush the Cushites and Phut the......

Words: 1957 - Pages: 8

Scientific Pursuit in the Mesopotamian and Hittite Civilizations.

...The pursuit of science in the Mesopotamian and Hittite civilizations was one of a similar goal. Both civilizations were the leaders in metallurgy and because of this easily conquered other empires with their impressive and extremely effective weaponry. Their inventions and innovations of metallurgy were rapidly adopted by other ancient civilizations and transformed how empires went to war. In 4000 B.C.E. Mesopotamia created the practice bronze metallurgy; this involved the combination copper and tin. With this new technology the Mesopotamians immediately had an advantage in both warfare and agriculture. In warfare, weaponry such as swords, spears, axes, shields, and armor were upgraded from the weaker copper and stone that they used to be made of. In agriculture “bronze knives and bronze tipped plows were used instead of tools made of bone, wood, stone, or obsidian" (Bentley and Ziegler, pg. 32). Mesopotamians attempted iron metallurgy as early as the fourth millennium but their results were less than stellar. Their new tools were far too weak to be used as acceptable replacements for bronze equipment. This is where the Hittites come in. This civilization in 1300 B.C.E. perfected the art of iron metallurgy. Innovating on what the Mesopotamians started, Hittites were able to create weapons cheaply and in much larger quantities (Bentley and Ziegler, pg. 32). What the Hittite craftsman discovered was “that by heating iron in a bed of charcoal, then hammering it into the......

Words: 527 - Pages: 3

A Study of Civilization and Isolation

...A Study of Civilization and Isolation Transformations in the way early humans developed their culture and society led to the marked distinctions that define their civilization. Intellectual, cultural and material developments are the driving factors behind the formation of the Mesopotamian civilization. Civilization in the West states that the Mesopotamians had survival in mind when they began forming a civilization ; however, I believe that they envisioned a greater existence in forming a civilization. The Minoan civilization was destined to remain isolated on the island of Crete. In contrast, the Mesopotamians' option of migrating anywhere in the Middle East proves conclusively that they sought a better life for themselves through the formation of a centralized civilization. Mesopotamia is considered the first civilization ever created and it was no accident that it formed. One could say that the people of Mesopotamia came together to fight the powers of Mother Nature. It was obvious that Mother Nature was not on their side, whether it be the thin soil in the north or the lack of rain in the south. Mesopotamians that once settled in scattered towns and villages came together to form small settlements and towns that they used to build irrigation systems. In centralizing their population, they benefited from the additional manpower that was necessary to carry on the irrigation systems that gave them a better day to day life. Organization of an agriculture system was...

Words: 1406 - Pages: 6

Dragon Ball – Bảy Viên Ngọc Rồng chap 247 | Watch movie | TAPPETI TAPPETINI IN GOMMA Ford Transit Custom dal 2013 3-posti