Levelling and Surveying

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surveyingLevelling & Surveying

3
3.1

LEVELLING & SURVEYING
General

The primary reference at water-level recording stations is a set of stable bench-marks, installed in locations where their level should not change. Upon initial set-up of a station, the levels of the relevant parts of the installation are established and recorded by means of accurate levelling. At least every two years, the levels of the staff gauges, sensor level, internal gauge, tower structure and benchmarks should be measured relative to each other as a check that records are not in error due to bank subsidence or other movement. Accurate levelling is thus a particularly important part of site establishment, installation and quality assurance. All staff shall be thoroughly familiar with its theory and practice. Levelling and surveying methods are also used for measurements of river channel and lake configurations. Often, less accurate methods can be used for this work than for water-level recording stations, although the techniques are common.

3.2 Definitions Differential levelling is the term applied to any method of measuring directly with a graduated staff the difference in elevation between two or more points. Precise levelling is a particularly accurate method of differential levelling which uses highly accurate levels and with a more rigorous observing procedure than general engineering levelling. It aims to achieve high orders of accuracy such as 1 mm per 1 km traverse. A level surface is a surface which is everywhere perpendicular to the direction of the force of gravity. An example is the surface of a completely still lake. For ordinary levelling, level surfaces at different elevations can be considered to be parallel. A level datum is an arbitrary level surface to which elevations are referred. The most common surveying datum is mean sea-level (MSL), but as hydrological…...

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