History of Penitentiaries

In: Other Topics

Submitted By raritho92
Words 629
Pages 3
History of Penitentiaries

Penitentiaries started in the 18 century in England and wales and have been developing ever since. Jeremy Bentham and John Howard's play an important role of how penitentiaries and prison started. Penitentiaries systems are developing over the years as punishments towards prisoners too. There are different ways of penitentiaries prisons for example; The Auburn and Pennsylvania which both have a distinct process and way of treating their prisoners which I will describe further. The history of penitentiaries started in the eighteenth century, British society started to move away from corporal punishment and toward imprisonment with the hope of reforming the mind and body. These changes ultimately helped to form the way for penitentiaries throughout the world and the rest of Europe. According to Jeremy Bentham there are three different types of prisons. Using John Howard's work as a base he developed three types of penitentiaries prisons. The types of prison were House of Safe Custody, the Penitentiary House, and the Black Prison. Each had a different level of treatment for the prisoners; the House of safe custody didn’t imprison those individuals who had short sentence to serve. Penitentiary house is the next step after the house of safe custody. This one is where temporary imprisonment occurred. After that comes the black prison. “In the Black Prison, to strike terror into the hearts of its inmates, two skeletons were to lie slumped together one either side of an iron door, thus reminding them that they were indeed an abode of death from which there was no escape.”
As prisons had their development, punishments for prisoners evolved as well. Back in the 17 hundreds prison was not considered a serious punishment as we see it now in the 20 century. In the early day’s prison were used to held prisoners which were in a type of standby…...

Similar Documents

Penitentiary Ideal and Models

...Penitentiary Ideal and Models of U.S. Pr CJS/230 Based on the ideals of a penitentiary, what should it be like? Penitentiaries were built to separate criminals from other criminals once they were incarcerated. The ideas of how a penitentiary should be back in the early 1700’s, was a place to basically separate criminals and keep them from one another.   Based on what people thought, a penitentiary was a dark and dingy place. The buildings that held prisoners did not really look like prisons. But since people knew that the buildings held criminals they assumed the worst. Penitentiaries were meant to be a place people were punished for their crimes. They were supposed to be clean and healthy but most of them were dirty and dark. Criminals were treated for their acts. They were make them realize about their worst behavior and also treatment is given to them so that they don’t repeat their sin again in life. It ultimately makes the guilty ones realize their sin and at the same time make them the productive part of the society. What was the principal goal of a penitentiary? The principle goal of a penitentiary was to attain some kind of spiritual guidance while being incarcerated.   Several reformers came to the penitentiaries to sit and talk with the prisoners teaching them about different religions. They say the stepping stones in the new evolution of the prison system was the penitentiary. This model gave them new directions to the prisons. Although the very first......

Words: 797 - Pages: 4

History of Penitentiaries

...Purpose and History Paper of Penitentiaries Ericka N. Williams CJA/234 May 14, 2013 Matt Holquin The development of prisons date as far back to the early Roman times, which forms of punishment were being used for offenders suspected or convicted of criminal activity. Prisons have developed and modified the effectiveness and appropriateness of punishment over time to function the way they do in today’s society. The correction process is among three of the major components of the criminal justice system, but could not be successfully complete without the police and the courts. There are two types of systems that prisons use to design and enforce punishment among offenders – Pennsylvania and Auburn. The systems tweaked and modified the original ideas, in order to form a prison system that would be effective and serve the purpose intended for criminals and impact and distinguish the amount of involvement of prison labor over time. History of punishment The history of the word punishment derives from the Latin word peonalis. Before the word punishment was used penology was the term used, which meant “punishment.” The term penology was later replaced by the term corrections. Our criminal justice system has a broad perspective of corrections for the criminal offenders convicted of criminal acts against another person or community. The use of punishment in earlier days resulted in public shaming, which was thought to prevent the accused from committing future crimes. These...

Words: 1345 - Pages: 6

Purpose and History of Penitentiaries

...Purpose and history of penitentiaries Name Date CJA/234 Introduction to Corrections Instructors Name History of Punishment History of punishment exists since of thousands of years. Though, it is very tough to decide when exactly human civilization started punishment system. There are some records to support the start of punishment system. The earliest legal code may have been that of Ur-Nammu, Founder of third dynasty of Ur at about 2050 BC. In this legal code actually a person will have to pay for something he does wrong. Usually the payment will be done in Silver Mina. Later, In Samarian records there was actually death penalty was given at murder trial. In the “Law of Eshunna” the upper class and lower class were given different punishment. This law use to cover every aspect of social life including marriage, divorce, Loans etc. The punishments were in form of monetary. The code of Hammurabi written around 1750 BC. By this code, abiding principle was Talio which has to do with mutilating the part of the body which has committed crime. In the kingdom, the legal rights and judicial process were available for everyone. But slaves and prisoners of war were......

Words: 856 - Pages: 4

Penitentiaries

...History of Penitentiaries History of Penitentiaries The history of penitentiaries is not only important but also is interesting in the development of the Unites States of America. This paper will discuss the development of penitentiaries as well as how punishment had changed for inmates from the beginning days of penitentiaries to current day. So grab a drink and possibly a snack, and let’s get to it. The penitentiary was a stepping stone in the evolution of the prison. The penitentiary, however, was the first attempt to use confinement as the punishment itself. In England, one of the first models for the modern prison was intended to provide a place of penance for prostitutes. No matter where most of us live in the world the modern day penitentiary has some philosophy and design history.     The penitentiary is a place that posted to be clean and healthy for the inmates. In addition, it a place that ensures the punishment the judge gives to the criminals and other punishment while in the penitentiary. The criminals are able to think about his or her wrongdoing and try to accomplish a change in life while incarcerated. The ideal for penitentiary is to keep the criminals off the streets, so that he or she cannot continue to commit crime in the society. Penitentiary ideal purposes were both secular and spiritual. A penitentiary had purposes to be both secular and spiritual. Instead of a penitentiary being all about physical punishment, it was supposed to be a place of......

Words: 797 - Pages: 4

Penitentiary Ideals and Models of American Prison

...Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison CJS/230 April 27, 2014 Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison The Eastern State Penitentiary ideal was supposed to be both a spiritual and non-spiritual place of punishment, mostly created and intended for repentance. The punishment that was delivered was to be considered humane, as opposed to physical, corporal punishment delivered in the jails. (Foster, 2006) The idea of the penitentiary was to create a particular punishment that would be considered a common upon all serious offenders. It was intended to replace the many different types of punishment that was handed down by the Judges when prisoners were sentenced to jail. One goal of the penitentiary was to be a completely different concept than that of a jail, the vision was for the penitentiary to be a clean and humane place where inmates could be housed. Inmates were kept separate and away from each other, in solitary confinement in an effort to help them maintain a clean body and clean spirit. Discipline that was used in the penitentiary was intended to correct the inmate’s behavior by strictly enforcing particular rules. The penitentiary model allowed prisoners to be productive by laboring and making handmade items, such as shoes and leather goods. Prisoners were just not permitted to just sit around all day; similar to what was happening in the jails. Although, the penitentiary was a secular place, it was created with a more spiritual intent.......

Words: 930 - Pages: 4

Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prisons

...Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prisons Name Institution * The penitentiary was a stepping stone in the evolution of the prison. The penitentiary, however, was the first attempt to use confinement as the punishment itself. In England, one of the first models for the modern prison was intended to provide a place of penance for prostitutes. No matter where most of us live in the world the modern day penitentiary has some philosophy and design history thanks to such British thinkers (philosophers) as John Stuart Mill (Utilitarianism) and those who took some of his writings a step or two further: Jeremy Bentham and Thomas Robert Malthus. This radical experiment was based on principles of separation from the moral contagion of their former lives, religious contemplation, and rigid structure. * * The state can respond to crime in a number of ways; together, the responses of the criminal justice system constitute one set of possible actions. The American Prison Association changed its name to American Correctional Association. This name change reflected the growing role of probation, parole, and other non-institutional methods of supervising and helping criminals. But symbolically it gave prisons a new mission: rehabilitation. Prisons offered an unprecedented number of programs designed to change the behavior of men and women in prison-to turn their law-breaking behavior into law-abiding......

Words: 745 - Pages: 3

The Purpose and History of Penitentiaries

...The Purpose and History of Penitentiaries Would you be able to envision what it would be like if we lived in a world where there are no consequences for law and or rules that have been broken? Our current Criminal Justice System is the aftereffect of changes that have occurred over a period of time. Throughout the years, components have been created to uphold rules and regulations and laws as well as punish criminals. Throughout this paper I will discuss the history of punishment and how prisons were developed. The impact and involvement of prison labor overtime and the Pennsylvania and Auburn system. History of Punishment Penology the study of punishment evolved in the 1950s. During this rehabilitation replaced the punishment of offenders and became the main objective. Also during this time the term penology was replaced by the term corrections. Corrections is defined as the supervision and monitoring of offenders, the secure holdings of inmates in prisons, and the treatment of problems such as drug addiction, mental illness and other services (Seiter, 2014, “Chapter 1, The History of Crimes and Corrections, What is Corrections?”). In the eighteen century an Italian theorist founded the classical school of criminology. His first theory of crime causation was linked to appropriate punishments. “Beccaria suggested that the purpose of punishment is utility or the prevention of crime. Included in his principles are that crime is an injury to society, that prevention is......

Words: 1567 - Pages: 7

Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison

...Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison A prison is in place to confine and deprive people from their basic freedoms. A prison is an institution that is part of the criminal justice system that is imposed for the conviction of a crime. A criminal that is charged or going to be charged will be held in a prison if unable to come up with the money for bail. A criminal defendant is also placed in a prison if they are found guilty of a crime (Americanprisonsystem.com, 2009). Throughout this paper the history of a prison, the Penitentiary Rivalry between Pennsylvania and New York and the effect these have had on the prison system we have in place today. The American prison system has been in place since the late 18th century. “Bridewells” were the first prisons and they were found in England. These prisons had very little to do with any form of punishment and were mainly used as holding cells for those facing a trial or those about to be executed, or those being banished from their community. The Walnut Street jail was the first penitentiary to be opened by the state of Pennsylvania in 1790.This particular jail was ran on the ideal that silence from the inmates would encourage them to think about their crime and then their conscience would lead them to repent for their crimes (Gaines & Miller, 2009). Being isolated from one another and being kept busy with different tasks was how the inmates lived. The prison eventually began to experience the same problems that...

Words: 985 - Pages: 4

The Purpose and History of Penitentiaries

...The Purpose and History of Penitentiaries Vanessa Waller CJA234 March 30, 2014 Professor Jeffrey Newton The Purpose and History of Penitentiaries Development of the penitentiary system came about due to the cruel and unruly way punishment was given to criminal offenders, so more secure ways to house criminals were necessary. Before incarceration became the standard there were various other forms of punishment used in order to curb and deter crime. The Code of Hammurabi, “an eye for an eye,” was believed to be the first law established for dealing with crimes. This retributive punishment led to centuries of cruel and harsh techniques, many of which were just short of torture, for attaining “justice.” However, in time, these methods would be considered inhumane and inadequate in preventing unlawful acts. Eventually, the Walnut Street Jail was founded and would be the first proper American prison institution, with far less severe methods in dealing with offenders. Two different systems came into creation; the Pennsylvania and Auburn systems. But the key consistent factor in these early systems lied in use and profitability of using inmates for prison labor. In the early eras before prisons were fully established punishment for offenders were unsympathetic and brutal. Sentences of deadly, physical force contributed as the common potency for retaliation. Although fines were occasionally offered, they may have well been obligatory since corporal retribution was the norm....

Words: 1146 - Pages: 5

Penitentiary Ideal

...| Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prisons | Rekita Williams | | CJS/230 | 9/18/2011 | Jean M. O’Gallagher | The American prison system was divided amongst two different types: Eastern State and Auburn. Both prisons were run in very different manors and my intentions are to explain each prison and the goals that they had in mind. The penitentiary was designed to be a place where punishment would be given in a humane way to people who had committed a crime. People who were incarcerated could receive rehabilitation as well as gain spiritual improvement while serving their sentence. The prisons should be a place where an individual would do their time as well as reflect on the events that led them to incarceration and make a choice to change their life around. Prisons were not made to be a comfortable living space so punishments and confinement should be expected. In the Eastern State penitentiary the punishments were considered to be extremely mild compared to other prisons. Later the punishments in the Eastern State prisons soon became harsher and almost inhumane due to the prisoners consistent misbehaving. Lashings were the first punishments inflicted then things like iron gags, water baths, and strait jackets were used to inflict punishment upon inmates. This type of prison was able to hold around 250 total prisoners based on its design. The design of the building was made so that the prisoners would be under......

Words: 569 - Pages: 3

Penitentiary Ideal and Models of Amercan Prisons Paper

...(Americanprisonsystem.com, 2009). The penitentiary was a stepping stone in the evolution of the prison. The penitentiary, however, was the first attempt to use confinement as the punishment itself. In England, one of the first models for the modern prison was intended to provide a place of penance for prostitutes. No matter where most of us live in the world the modern day penitentiary has some philosophy and design history. The penitentiary is a place that posted to be clean and healthy for the inmates. In addition, it a place that ensures the punishment the judge gives to the criminals and other punishment while in the penitentiary (Foster, "Chapter 2/The Penitentiary Ideal," 2006). The criminals are able to think about his or her wrongdoing and try to accomplish a change in life while incarcerated. The ideal for penitentiary is to keep the criminals off the streets, so that he or she cannot continue to commit crime in the society. Penitentiary ideal purposes were both secular and spiritual (Foster, "Chapter 2/The Penitentiary Ideal," 2006). A penitentiary had purposes to be both secular and spiritual. Instead of a penitentiary being all about physical punishment, it was supposed to be a place of humane punishment for wrong doers. Instead of prisoners being bunched together, the true penitentiary was meant to have them separated from each other to avoid contamination of the body and spirit. I personally think that a penitentiary should be more like a place to......

Words: 751 - Pages: 4

Penitentiary

...Penitentiary Penitentiary In modern society, it isn’t commonplace to hear the word “penitentiary” in our everyday lives. Whether it would be someone being confined for performing and being convicted of a crime on the evening news to reading an article in the newspaper about a local figurehead being placed there because of some type of inappropriate actions either in office or outside of it. Back in the day, it was very out of place to hear about someone being locked up and having the proverbial key thrown away but now it seems like an occurrence in our lives. Where did the concept of the modern day penitentiary come from? Why do we practice this form of punishment today? This is what I will attempt to answer. To understand our current prison system and how it operates, we have to look back at the past. Originally, the penitentiary began as an set of principles whose purposes were both secular and spiritual, a type of place that would have humane punishment instead of the abusive and labor-heavy environment that you would find over in foreign countries, primarily in the western hemisphere. Over in the west, they used the aspect of physical punishment to expedite the sentences of criminals with serious charges against them, rather than wait for them to appear in front of a judge. Their philosophy in confinement involved having the inmates all being in the same living quarters and using a lot of the same facilities such as the bathroom, etc. The penitentiary here in the......

Words: 894 - Pages: 4

Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison

...Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison ? CJS/230 June ?, 2012 ? Abstract In this overview the following points will be addressed: based on the ideals of the penitentiary, what it should be like, the principal goal of a penitentiary, the differences between the two prison models, the benefits and the drawbacks of those models, and the model considered to be the winning model. Penitentiary Ideal and Models of American Prison Unlike American prisons and penitentiary’s we see today, they were much different as we look back into our history in the early eras of how prisons, penitentiaries, and inmates were handled. Penitentiary is defined as a prison or place of confinement where persons convicted of felonies serve their term of imprisonment. Based on the ideals of a penitentiary it is supposed to be a place of humane punishments instead of the harsh physical type. Furthermore, it was supposed to be a specific punishment. It was to be clean and sanitary in comparison to jails. The most important focus and principal goal of the penitentiary was to practice corrective discipline by the creation of habits of industry by the enforcement of rules. Inmates were to work consistently and not idle. It seemed like good intentions and motive went into trying to organize this type of system. The two prison models according to Corrections: The Fundamentals, by Burk Foster. Published by Prentice-Hall. Copyright © 2006 by Pearson Education, Inc, Chapter 2 reading...

Words: 783 - Pages: 4

Punishment and Penitentiaries

...Punishment and Penitentiaries Punishment and Penitentiaries The History of Punishment The earliest history of punishment began when the founder of the 3rd dynasty of Ur, created the earliest code known as the Ur-Nammu back in 2050 B.C. In the Ur-Nammu code, there were clear statements about if a person does something, what he will have to pay. Usually the payment was in silver and in later years there were records that the death penalty was given to murderers. The Code of Hammurabi was written in 1750 B.C. By this code, the abiding principle was Talio, which had to do for mutilating or amputating the part of the body that had committed the crime. Under the Code of Hammurabi, the death penalty was awarded for crimes such as thievery, selling or receiving stolen goods, kidnapping, assisting fugitive slaves and for the sale of drink or even keeping a disorderly tavern. In the first five books of the Bible, Biblical punishments follow Hammurabi. In later eras, each civilization developed their set of codes and punishments to fit their needs and own beliefs. The Development of Prisons Until the late 18th century, prisons were used mainly for the confinement of debtors who could not meet their obligations, of accused persons waiting to be tried, and of convicts who were waiting for their sentences—either death or banishment—to be put in effect. Imprisonment, later, also became the means of punishing convicted criminals. During the 16th century, a number of......

Words: 976 - Pages: 4

Penitentiary

...Jeremy Bentham's Panopticon Design Two models A penitentiary had purposes to be both secular and spiritual. Instead of a penitentiary being all about physical punishment, it was supposed to be a place of humane punishment for wrong doers. Instead of prisoners being bunched together, the true penitentiary was meant to have them separated from each other to avoid contamination of the body and spirit. I personally think that a penitentiary should be more like a place to make an inmate know that they did wrong by breaking the law. The first model was called the Pennsylvania system. It was based on the idea of "separate and silent." The state of Pennsylvania built two big prisons, one in Philadelphia and another in Pittsburgh. These were known as Eastern Penitentiary and Western Penitentiary, respectively. Eastern Penitentiary was operational from 1829 to 1971, and there are some good photos and videos of it at http://www.easternstate.org/explore/flickr, and the Wikipedia article on it is pretty good. Western was a poor imitation of Jeremy Bentham's panopticon design (explained shortly), and Eastern better characterized the model as consisting of large cells that faced outside so each inmate would have a small amount of outdoor space or footage. Inmates could exercise in their own cells, have their meals delivered, and never come in contact with another inmate. If they wanted to plant a garden in their outdoor patio, they could. If they wanted to engage in......

Words: 431 - Pages: 2

Professional Cardiology Stethoscope Black, 14a Life Limited Warranty | jantes alu voiture | family guy