Submitted By kbrayants

Words 844

Pages 4

Words 844

Pages 4

March 4, 2013

Chapter 4 Practice Problems

(11) List the five steps of hypothesis testing, and explained the procedure and logic of each.

1) Restate the research question; specify the null theory about the populations.

State the null theory and the alternate theory

Null: Ho:

Alteration: Ha:

2) Determine the features of the compared distribution.

Define the level of significance, using type 1 errors; identify sample size using data and resources that are available.

3) Define the region cutoff sample score.

Identify the test statistics and sampling distributions.

4) Determine the sample’s score on the comparison distribution.

Collect any data and compute the statistics test to find p -value

5) Select the appropriate theory.

Classify the p-value and identify whether not to reject the null theory. Summarize the results and give a clear comprehensive solution towards the underline problem.

(14) Based on the information given for each of the following studies; decide whether to reject the null hypothesis. For each, give (a) the Z- score cutoff (or cutoffs) on the comparison distribution at which the null hypothesis should be rejected (b) the Z score on the comparison distribution for the sample score and (c) your conclusion. Assume that all populations are normally distributed.

Study

A-D mean population = 5

Standard deviation = 1

Sample score = 7

P = study A&B =.05

P = study C&D = .01

Tails of this study a = 1(high prediction)

Study b = 2

Study c = 1(high prediction)

Study d = 2

Formula z = (SC-M)/SD

Study A: (b) 7-5 = 2/1 = 2; (c) reject the Ho the cut off z score is (a) 1.64

Study B: (b) 7-5 = 2/1=2; (c) reject the Ho the cutoff z score z is (a) 1.96

Study C: (b) 7-5 = 2/1 =2; (c) fail to reject Ho the cutoff z score is (a) 2.3263

Study D: (b) 7-5 = 2/1 = 2; (c) fail to reject Ho the cutoff z score is (a) 2.576…...

...Probability of case reversed Penelope Cunningham .000366 Patrick Dinkelacker .000667 Deborah Gaines .001023 Ronald Panioto .000231 Municipal Court Judge Probability of case reversed Mike Allen .000651 Nadine Allen .000768 Timothy Black .000754 David Davis .000646 Leslie Isaiah Gaines .002461 Karla Grady 0 Deidra Hair 0 Dennis Helmick .000633 Timothy Hogan .000867 James Patrick Kenney .000357 Joseph Luebbers .001703 William Mallory .001087 Melba Marsh .000852 Beth Mattingly .000337 Albert Mestemaker .001809 Mark Painter .001341 Jack Rosen .001669 Mark Schweikert .001111 David Stockdale .000745 John A. West .000715 4. The probability of reversal given an appeal for each judge Common Pleas Court Probability of reversal given Judge an appeal Fred Cartolano | 0.08759124 | Thomas Crush | 0.08403361 | Patrick Dinkelacker | 0.18181818 | Timothy Hogan | 0.11666667 | Robert Kraft | 0.05511811 | William Mathews | 0.19780221 | William Morrissey | 0.18181818 | Norbert Nadel | 0.15267176 | Arthur Ney Jr. | 0.11200000 | Richard Niehaus | 0.11678832 | Thomas Nurre | 0.04958678 | John O'Connor | 0.09302326 | Robert Ruehlman | 0.12413793 | J. Howard Sundermann Jr. | 0.16666667 | Ann Marie Tracey | 0.1023622 | Ralph Winkler | 0.06818182 | | | | |...

Words: 510 - Pages: 3

...PSY/315 March 18, 2013 Chapter 7 14.) Evolutionary theory often emphasizes that human have adapted to their physical environment. One such theory hypothesizes that people should spontaneously follow a 24-hour cycle of sleeping and waking-even though they are not exposed to the usual pattern of sunlight. To test this notion, eight paid volunteers were placed (individually) in a room in which there were no light from outside and no clocks or other indications of time. They could turn the lights on and off is they wish. After a month in the room, each individual tended to develop a study cycle. Their cycles at the end of the study were as follows: 25, 27, 25, 23, 24, 25, 26, and 25. Using the 0 .5 level of significance, what should we conclude about the theory that 24 hours is the natural cycle? (That is, does the average cycling under these conditions differ significantly from 24-hour?) (a) Use the steps of hypothesis testing. (b) Sketch the distributions involved, (c) explain yourself to someone who has never had a course in statistics. (a) Steps of hypothesis testing 1. Restate the question as a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis about the populations. There are two populations Population 1: people who are given the experimental test for 24 hours is the natural cycle. Population 2: people who are given the experimental test in less than 24 hours is the natural cycle. The null hypothesis: µ = 24 The alternative hypothesis: µ ≠ 24 2. Define......

Words: 1742 - Pages: 7

...Chapter 1: 12) a. Equal- interval- variable that have constant, equal distances between values, but the zero is arbitrary. An example is a pain scale 1-10. b. Rank-order- a variable in which the numbers stand only for relative ranking. An example could be a birth order, child #1, child #2, child #3 and so on. c. Nominal- a variable that is not a number and the values are names or categories. An example would be abnormal psychology and the values would be: PTSD, anxiety, Depression, schizophrenia, etc. d. Ratio-scale- a number scale that has an absolute zero point. An example would be the amount of men who buy new cars to the amount of women who buy new cars. e. Continuous-in theory an infinite number of values between any two values. An example would be, “How far along are you in your pregnancy?” The answer would be a specific amount, say 2 to 3 months. It could also be answered 2.5 months. 19) a. Bimodal- An example of bimodal distribution would be studying the average age of elementary girls who play Little League softball. The data could show that out of 20 elementary girls there were 6 that were the age 8 and 10 that were the age 12 and the rest were between 9 and 11. The bimodal distribution would show 2 bumps, one to state that the average age was 8 and the other hump would state that the average age was 12. b. Approximately rectangular- all subjects have an equal probability of happening. An example is a six-sided die,......

Words: 618 - Pages: 3

...Name PSY 315 Week 5 Practice Problems Chapter 7: 14. Evolutionary theories often emphasize that humans have adapted to their physical environment. One such theory hypothesizes that people should spontaneously follow a 24-hour cycle of sleeping and waking—even if they are not exposed to the usual pattern of sunlight. To test this notion, eight paid volunteers were placed (individually) in a room in which there was no light from the outside and no clocks or other indications of time. They could turn the lights on and off as they wished. After a month in the room, each individual tended to develop a steady cycle. Their cycles at the end of the study were as follows: 25, 27, 25, 23, 24, 25, 26, and 25. Using the .05 level of significance, what should we conclude about the theory that 24 hours is the natural cycle? (That is, does the average cycle length under these conditions differ significantly from 24 hours?) (a) Use the steps of hypothesis testing. (b) Sketch the distributions involved. (c) Explain your answer to someone who has never taken a course in statistics. Step 1: H0: M=24 (Null) H1: M 24 (Alternative) Step 2: X | | | 25 | 0 | 0 | 27 | 2 | 4 | 25 | 0 | 0 | 23 | -2 | 4 | 24 | -1 | 1 | 25 | 0 | 0 | 26 | 1 | 1 | 25 | 0 | 0 | x= 200 S2 =10/7= 1.42857 S2m= S2/n=10 7/8= 0.17857 Sm=Sm2= 0.422577 Step 3: (=.025, DF=7) =2.365...

Words: 1108 - Pages: 5

...Week 4 Individual Assignment Erwin O. Raymer III PSY/315 Jan. 13th 2014 Jennifer Lapin Week 4 Individual Assignment The five steps of hypothesis testing consist of the following. Restate the question as a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis. This is where an individual would make a research hypothesis, which is basically a prediction intended to be tested in a research study. This prediction is usually based on the researcher’s theory. A null hypothesis is the opposite of the research hypothesis. If the null hypothesis is found to be true then it is not possible for the research hypothesis to be relevant. Same goes for if the research hypothesis is true then the null hypothesis is unable to be relevant as well. Determine the characteristics of the comparison distribution. In the hypothesis testing process you want to find out the probability that you could have a sample score as extreme as what you got if your sample was from a population with a distribution of the sort you would have if the null hypothesis were true. That is in the hypothesis testing process, you compare the actual samples score to this comparison distribution. Determine the cut off sample score on the comparison distribution at which the null hypothesis should be rejected. (Critical value) Ideally, before conducting a study, researchers set a target against which they will compare their results. How extreme a sample score they would need to decide......

Words: 931 - Pages: 4

...Statistics for Psychology Mary Hale 7/8/2013 PSY 315 Dr. Ellis-Morris Prepare a written response to the following assignments located in the text: Ch. 1, Practice Problems: 12, 15, 19, 20, 21, & 22 (12) Explain and give an example for each of the following types of variables: A) equal interval- A variable whose value is not known and can take on different values. For example 0 degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit (0 degrees Celsius does not mean there is no temperature but it is different from 0 degrees Fahrenheit.) B) rank order- variables that are individual observations that can be put into order from smallest to largest, even though the exact values are unknown. An example of this would be shirts, small, medium and large shirts. C) Nominal- variables which are also called categorical variables. They classify observations into a small number of categories. Examples are 1) "types of property" can include houses, condos, Co-ops, or bungalows. Another example 2) Gender or race D) Ratio Scale- is measured data with a zero point and provides information relative to an absolute zero. An example of this is a person's weight. The scale starts at 0 and when you step on it, the amount goes up starting from 0 to the amount of weight on it. (It has to start at 0). E) Continuous- variables that are numeric and can be any number (positive or negative). Examples of...

Words: 747 - Pages: 3

...Name: Unknown Chapter 4 Instructions Practice Problem 11, 14, & 18 Due Week 4 Day 6 (Sunday) Follow the instructions below to submit your answers for Chapter 4 Practice Problem 11, 14 & 18. 1. Save Chapter 4 Instructions to your computer. 2. Type your answers into the shaded boxes below. The boxes will expand as you type your answers. 3. Resave this form to your computer with your answers filled-in. 4. Attach the saved form to your reply when you turn-in your work in the Assignments section of the Classroom tab. Note: Each question in the assignments section will be listed separately; however, you only need to submit this form one time to turn-in your answers. Read each question in your text book and then type your answers for Chapter 4 Practice Problem 11, 14 & 18 in the shaded boxes below. Please record only your answers. It is not necessary to show your work. 11. Step 1 – Restate the research question; specify the null theory about the populations. - This is step is necessary because it is a reference point throughout the study. Always state the null theory and the alternate theory Null - Ho: Alternate - Ha: Step 2 – Determine the features of the compared distribution. Define the level of significance, using type 1 errors; identify sample size using data and resources that are available. Step 3 – Find out the sample’s score on the comparison distribution. Once the sample outcomes are the Z score can be computed as under: is...

Words: 380 - Pages: 2

...Chapter 2 Practice Problems 11, 12, 13, 16, 21 11. 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 5 (numbers in order) (a) 2 (b) 2 (c) 56 (d) 2.666 or 2.7 rounded o nearest tenth (e) 1.632 or 1.6 to the nearest tenth 12. 1,112 1,245 1,361 1,372 1,472 (a) 1,312.4 (b) 1,361 (c) 76,089.2 (d) 15,217.84 or 15,217.8 to the nearest tenth (e) 123.361 or 123.4 to the nearest tenth 13. 2.6, 3.0, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5 (numbers in order) (a) 3.166 (b) 3.25 (c) .5333 (rounded) (d) .0889 (rounded) (e) .2981 ( rounded) 16. Governors – 36, 40, 44, 52 CEO’s – 32, 36, 48, 60 (a) Governors mean = 43, Governors SD = 5.916 CEO’s mean = 44, CEO’s SD = 10.954 (b) In order to find the mean, there are four different numbers (scores), you add up all the scores to get the sum and then you divide that sum by four because there are four different scores. In order to get the standard deviation, you first find the mean and then you subtract that mean by each individual score. After you figure out the differences, you then take each individual one and square it (or multiply it by itself). After you have found the product of each one you then add them all together, then you take that sum and divide it by the amount of scores again which is four. After you have figured that out, you then find the square root and that gives you the standard deviation number. (c) The means and the standard deviations differ because they are completely different formulas and in order to find...

Words: 821 - Pages: 4

... D) A ratio scale is measured by equal-interval variable. An equal-interval variable has an absolute zero point on the ratio scale. An absolute zero point means there is an absence of the variable. Example: A number of cats an individual has. If one person has three and the other has six, you can say that they have three times the amount of that person. E) A continuous variable is a theory that you can have an infinite number between 2 variables. Example: An example of this would big age. You can say you are 12.5 years old. 15. Make (a) a frequency table and (b) a histogram. Then (c) describe the general shape of the distribution. A) Speeds | Frequency | Percent | 15-21 | 2 | 5% | 22-28 | 4 | 10% | 29-35 | 17 | 42.50% | 36-42 | 13 | 32.50% | 43-53 | 4 | 5% | B) http://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/createagraph/graphwrite.asp?ID=b8877424c4834801b7d9e181d80b9102&file=png C) I believe this graph would be bimodal. It has two high points very close together and has the same cause throughout. It is easy to tell that most people either do the speed limit of speed in this frequency table. A very small percent of people are under the speed limit in the 35 mph zone. 19. Give an example of something having these distribution shapes: (a) bimodal, (b) approximately rectangular, and (c) positively skewed. A) An example of a bimodal distribution shape could be the day’s account of college freshmen taking final examinations in Algebra 1. For the first two hours......

Words: 792 - Pages: 4

...PSY 315 Week 1 Practice Problems Prepare a written response to the following questions. Chapter 1 12. Explain and give an example for each of the following types of variables: a. Equal interval: b. Rank-order: c. Nominal: d. Ratio scale: e. Continuous: f. Discrete: 15. Following are the speeds of 40 cars clocked by radar on a particular road in a 35-mph zone on a particular afternoon: 30, 36, 42, 36, 30, 52, 36, 34, 36, 33, 30, 32, 35, 32, 37, 34, 36, 31, 35, 20 24, 46, 23, 31, 32, 45, 34, 37, 28, 40, 34, 38, 40, 52, 31, 33, 15, 27, 36, 40 Make a frequency table and a histogram, then describe the general shape of the distribution. 21. Raskauskas and Stoltz (2007) asked a group of 84 adolescents about their involvement in traditional and electronic bullying. The researchers defined electronic bullying as “…a means of bullying in which peers use electronics {such as text messages, emails, and defaming Web sites} to taunt, threaten, harass, and/or intimidate a peer” (p.565). The table below is a frequency table showing the adolescents’ reported incidence of being victims or perpetrators or traditional and electronic bullying. a. Using this table as an example, explain the idea of a frequency table to a person who has never had a course in statistics. b. Explain the general meaning of the pattern of results. |Incidence of Traditional and Electronic Bullying and......

Words: 760 - Pages: 4

...PSY 315 Complete Course Material All Weeks 1-5 A+Grade To Buy this Class Copy & paste below link in your Brower http://homeworklance.com/downloads/psy-315-complete-course-material-wk-1-5-agrade/ Or Visit Our Website Visit : http://homeworklance.com Email Us : lancehomework@gmail.com PSY 315 Complete Course Material All Weeks 1-5 A+Grade Wk 1 DQ 1 How would could you use descriptive statistics in your personal life? Wk 1 DQ 2 What types of ethical issues arise when conducting research? PSY 315 Week 1 Individual Assignment Research, Statistics, And Psychology Paper WK 2 DQ 1 How might you use probability theory in everyday living? DQ-2 How effective are the pie charts that often accompany a newspaper article in explaining the statistics being used in the article? PSY 315 Week 2 Individual Assignment Ch 1 Practice Problems 12 15 19 20 21 And 22 PSY 315 Week 2 Team Assignment Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Paper Wk 3 DQ 1 DQ-1 What is the five-step process for hypothesis testing? Is the order important? Explain why or why not. Why do alphas differ among different fields of scientific investigation? How do ethics affect your chosen level of significance? DQ-2 Why is it said that hypothesis testing involves double negative logic? PSY 315 Week 3 Individual Assignment Chapter 2 Practice Problems 11 12 13 16 21 And Chapter 3 Practice Problems 14 15 22 25 Wk 4 DQ 1 What is an example of a...

Words: 7820 - Pages: 32

...University of Phoenix Material Week Four Practice Problems Prepare a written response to the following questions. Chapter 7 26. The table below shows ratings of various aspects of work and home life of 100 middle-class men in India who were fathers. Pick three rows of interest to you and explain the results to someone who is familiar with the mean, variance, and Z scores, but knows nothing else about statistics. |Comparison of Fathers' Mean Psychological States in the Job and Home Spheres (N = 100) | | | |Sphere | | |Scale |Range |Work |Home |Work vs. home | |Important |0-9 |5.98 |5.06 |6.86*** | |Attention |0-9 |6.15 |5.13 |7.96*** | |Challenge |0-9 |4.11 |2.41 |11.49*** | |Choice |0-9 |4.28 |4.74 |-3.38*** | |Wish doing else |0-9 |1.5 |1.44 |0.61 | |Hurried |0-3 |1.8 |1.39 |3.21** | |Social Anxiety |0-3 |0.81 |0.64 |3.17** | |Affect |1-7 |4.84 |4.98 ...

Words: 538 - Pages: 3

...University of Phoenix Material Week Four Practice Problems Prepare a written response to the following questions. Chapter 7 26. The table below shows ratings of various aspects of work and home life of 100 middle-class men in India who were fathers. Pick three rows of interest to you and explain the results to someone who is familiar with the mean, variance, and Z scores, but knows nothing else about statistics (2pts). |Comparison of Fathers' Mean Psychological States in the Job and Home Spheres (N = 100) | | | |Sphere | | |Scale |Range |Work |Home |Work vs. home | |Important |0-9 |5.98 |5.06 |6.86*** | |Attention |0-9 |6.15 |5.13 |7.96*** | |Challenge |0-9 |4.11 |2.41 |11.49*** | |Choice |0-9 |4.28 |4.74 |-3.38*** | |Wish doing else |0-9 |1.5 |1.44 |0.61 | |Hurried |0-3 |1.8 |1.39 |3.21** | |Social Anxiety |0-3 |0.81 |0.64 |3.17** | |Affect |1-7 |4.84 ......

Words: 546 - Pages: 3

...University of Phoenix Material Week 4 Practice Worksheet Prepare a written response to the following questions. Chapters 9 &11 1. Two boats, the Prada (Italy) and the Oracle (USA), are competing for a spot in the upcoming America’s Cup race. They race over a part of the course several times. The sample times in minutes for the Prada were: 12.9, 12.5, 11.0, 13.3, 11.2, 11.4, 11.6, 12.3, 14.2, and 11.3. The sample times in minutes for the Oracle were: 14.1, 14.1, 14.2, 17.4, 15.8, 16.7, 16.1, 13.3, 13.4, 13.6, 10.8, and 19.0. For data analysis, the appropriate test is the t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances. The next table shows the results of this independent t-test. At the .05 significance level, can we conclude that there is a difference in their mean times? Explain these results to a person who knows about the t test for a single sample but is unfamiliar with the t test for independent means. Hypothesis Test: Independent Groups (t-test, unequal variance) Prada Oracle 12.170 14.875 mean 1.056 2.208 std. dev. 10 12 n 16 df -2.7050 difference (Prada - Oracle) 0.7196 standard error of difference 0 hypothesized difference -3.76 t .0017 p-value (two-tailed) -4.2304 confidence interval 95.% lower -1.1796 confidence interval 95.% upper 1.5254 margin of error 2. The Willow Run Outlet Mall has two Haggar Outlet Stores,...

Words: 1091 - Pages: 5

...p University of Phoenix Material Week 2 Practice Worksheet Prepare a written response to the following questions. Chapter 3 1. For the following scores, find the mean, median, and the mode. Which would be the most appropriate measure for this data set? 2, 2, 0, 5,1, 4,1, 3, 0, 0, 1, 4, 4, 0,1, 4, 3, 4, 2, 1 2. Based on the scale of measurement for each variable listed below, which measure of central tendency is most appropriate for describing the data? a. The time (in years) it takes a sample of students to graduate college b. The blood type (e.g., Type A, B, AB, O) of a group of participants c. The rankings of college undergraduate academic programs Chapter 4 3. An expert reviews a sample of 10 scientific articles (n = 10) and records the following numbers of error in each article: 0, 4, 2, 8, 2, 3, 1, 0, 5, and 7. Compute the SS, the variance, and the standard deviation for this sample using the definitional and computational formulas. 4. A psychologist interested in political behavior measured the square footage of the desks in the official office for four U.S. governors and of four chief executive officers (CEOs) of major U.S. corporations. The figures for the governors were 44, 36, 52, and 40 square feet. The figures for the CEOs were 32, 60, 48, 36 square feet. a. Figure the means and standard deviations for the governors and CEOs. b. Explain, to a person who has never had a course in statistics,...

Words: 928 - Pages: 4